First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408616



Table 2. European exposure values in children and mothers in the COPHES/DEMOCOPHES study and for those in NHANES.
Biomarker of exposure COPHES/DEMOCOPHES study NHANESd
n % > LOQa GM (95% CI)b P90 (95% CI)b n (%) exceeding guidance valuec Period n GM (95% CI) P90 (95% CI)
Abbreviations: BE, biomonitoring equivalent; DEHP, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; ∑(GM), sum of geometric means of MEHP, 5OH-MEHP, and 5oxo-MEHP; HBM-I, human biomonitoring value I; HBM-II, human biomonitoring value II; JECFA, Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives; LOQ, limit of quantification; MBzP, monobenzyl phthalate; MEP, monoethyl phthalate; MiBP, monoisobutyl phthalate; MnBP, mono-n-butyl phthalate; P90, 90th percentile.
aLOQs ranged from 0.001 to 0.137 μg/g for mercury in hair, 0.1–1.2 μg/L for urinary cotinine, 0.001–0.2 μg/L for urinary cadmium, 0.3–3.9 μg/L for urinary MEHP, 0.1–9.2 μg/L for urinary 5OH-MEHP, 0.1–6.2 μg/L for urinary 5oxo-MEHP, 0.5–11 μg/L for urinary MEP, 0.2–5 μg/L for urinary MBzP, 0.5–4.4 μg/L for urinary MnBP, and 0.5–4.9 μg/L for urinary MiBP. bGeometric means and 90th percentiles are weighed but not adjusted for confounders (see “Methods”). cHealth-based exposure values are available for mercury: JECFA guideline = 2.3 μg/g (WHO 2004); cadmium: HBM-I in children = 0.5 μg/L; HBM-II in children = 1 μg/L; HBM-I in adults = 1.0 μg/L; HBM-II in adults = 4.0 μg/L (Schulz et al. 2012); BE in children and in mothers = 1.2 μg/L (Hays et al. 2008); phthalate metabolites: HBM-I value for DEHP metabolites are based on the sum of 5OH-MEHP and 5oxo-MEHP and equal 500 μg/L in children and 300 μg/L in adults (Schulz et al. 2012); BEs for DEHP metabolites are based on the sum of MEHP, 5OH–MEHP, and 5oxo-MEHP: 260 μg/L in both children and mothers (Aylward et al. 2009a); BE for MEP in mothers and children = 18 mg/L (Aylward et al. 2009b); BE for MBzP in children and adults = 3.8 mg/L (Aylward et al. 2009b). dNHANES: data for urinary cadmium and urinary phthalate metabolites from The Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, March 2013 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013); data for mercury in hair from McDowell et al. (2004). Data for COPHES/DEMOCOPHES children are compared with NHANES subgroup “Age group 6–11 years”; data for COPHES/DEMOCOPHES mothers are compared with NHANES subgroup “Females.” eUrinary DEHP metabolites: sum of MEHP, 5OH-MEHP, and 5oxo-MEHP.
Children
Mercury in hair (μg/g) 1,836 85.9 0.145 (0.139, 0.151) 0.800 (0.698, 0.917) JECFA: n = 25 (1.4) 1999–2000 838 0.12 (0.10, 0.12) 0.41
Urinary cotinine (μg/L) 1,818 57.6 0.80 (0.76, 0.84) 4.90 (3.90, 6.16)
Urinary cadmium (μg/L) 1,698 70.1 0.071 (0.069, 0.074) 0.220 (0.209, 0.232) HBM-I: n = 6 (0.4)
HBM–II: n = 0 (0.0)
BE: n = 0 (0.0)
2009–2010 415 0.057
(0.053, 0.061)
0.130
(0.120, 0.160)
Urinary DEHP metabolites (μg/L)e 1,816 85.6 47.6 (46.0, 49.3) 137 (126, 150) HBM-I: n = 12 (0.6)
BE: n = 53 (2.9)
2009–2010 415 MEHP: 1.64 (1.45, 1.85)
5OH-MEHP: 15.0 (13.2, 17.1)
5-oxo-MEHP: 9.87 (8.72, 11.0)
∑(GM) = 26.5
Urinary MEP (μg/L) 1,816 98.0 34.4 (32.8, 36.0) 159 (138, 183) BE: n = 0 (0.0) 2009–2010 415 35.2 (31.2, 39.8) 151 (114, 207)
Urinary MBzP (μg/L) 1,816 95.2 7.1 (6.8, 7.5) 27.8 (25.2, 30.6) BE: n = 0 (0.0) 2009–2010 415 11.6 (9.51, 14.1) 63.9 (47.4, 76.8)
Urinary MnBP (μg/L) 1,355 99.9 34.8 (33.5, 36.2) 95.5 (87.3, 104.5) 2009–2010 415 21.7 (19.0, 24.8) 83.8 (59.6, 121)
Urinary MiBP (μg/L) 1,355 99.8 45.4 (43.6, 47.3) 131 (117, 147) 2009–2010 415 10.2 (9.10, 11.4) 35.7 (28.8, 46.9)
Mothers
Mercury in hair (μg/g) 1,839 90.5 0.225 (0.216, 0.234) 1.200 (1.068, 1.349) JECFA: n = 62 (3.4) 1999–2000 1,726 0.20 (0.16, 0.24) 1.11
Urinary cotinine (μg/L) 1,800 62.4 2.75 (2.41, 3.14) 1,182 (974, 1,434)
Urinary cadmium (μg/L) 1,685 93.8 0.219 (0.211, 0.228) 0.620 (0.580, 0.663) HBM-I: n = 49 (2.9)
HBM–II: n = 0 (0.0)
BE: n = 26 (1.5)
2009–2010 1,450 0.188
(0.172, 0.206)
0.740
(0.620, 0.880)
Urinary DEHP metabolites (μg/L)e 1,800 81.6 29.2 (28.1, 30.3) 91 (84, 100) HBM-I: n = 19 (1.0)
BE: n = 28 (1.5)
2009–2010 1,350 MEHP: 1.39 (1.21, 1.60)
5OH-MEHP: 11.0 (9.58, 12.8)
5-oxo-MEHP: 7.09 (6.17, 8.14)
∑(GM) = 19.5
Urinary MEP (μg/L) 1,800 95.2 48.2 (45.6, 51.0) 252 (221, 287) BE: n = 0 (0.0) 2009–2010 1,350 67.8 (60.3, 76.4) 548 (392, 675)
Urinary MBzP (μg/L) 1,800 91.8 4.5 (4.3, 4.7) 17.7 (16.1, 19.5) BE: n = 0 (0.0) 2009–2010 1,350 6.04 (5.38, 6.77) 29.3 (24.5, 36.9)
Urinary MnBP (μg/L) 1,347 99.4 23.9 (23.0, 24.9) 66.2 (60.5, 72.4) 2009–2010 1,350 14.7 (13.1, 16.5) 57.7 (52.7, 63.9)
Urinary MiBP (μg/L) 1,347 99.4 30.1 (28.9, 31.4) 88 (81, 96) 2009–2010 1,350 7.50 (6.68, 8.43) 29.1 (25.3, 33.5)