First Steps toward Harmonized Human Biomonitoring in Europe: Demonstration Project to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408616



Table 3. Determinants of exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites (μg/L): multiple regression models in children.
Parameters Category Estimate (95% CI) for change (multiplicative factor)
DEHP MEP MBzP MnBP MiBP
NS, not significant. For phthalate abbreviations, see Table 2.
aThe confounders urinary creatinine level, sex, and age were forced in the multiple regression models, even if not significant. bUse of personal care products (PCPs) is calculated as a score based on the frequency (never to daily) of nine PCP groups (makeup, eye makeup, shampoo, hair-styling products, body lotions and creams, fragrances, deodorant, massage oil, and nail polish).
Agea 5–8 years 1.19 (1.11, 1.27) 1.15 (1.04, 1.26) 1.15 (1.06, 1.26) 1.15 (1.07, 1.24) 1.19 (1.10, 1.28)
9–11 years 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sexa Boys NS NS NS 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) 0.92 (0.85, 0.99)
Girls 1.00 1.00
Urinary creatinine levela 300–900 mg/L 0.46 (0.42, 0.51) 0.41 (0.36, 0.47) 0.41 (0.37, 0.47) 0.45 (0.41, 0.50) 0.45 (0.40, 0.50)
900–1,500 mg/L 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) 0.68 (0.61, 0.77) 0.69 (0.62, 0.78) 0.73 (0.66, 0.81) 0.72 (0.65, 0.80)
1,500–3,000 mg/L 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Urine sampling period < 10 hr NS 1.20 (1.06, 1.35) NS NS NS
10–11 hr 1.14 (1.02, 1.29)
≥ 11 hr 1.00
Morning urine Yes NS NS 1.98 (1.17, 3.36) NS NS
No 1.00
Educational level of the family Primary NS 0.91 (0.81, 1.03) NS 0.91 (0.81, 1.03) NS
Secondary 0.89 (0.82, 0.97) 0.89 (0.82, 0.97)
Tertiary 1.00 1.00
Use of personal care productsb Moderate to high use NS 1.24 (1.13, 1.37) NS NS 1.13 (1.03, 1.23)
Low use 1.00 1.00
Ice cream consumption Several times/week 1.12 (1.01, 1.25) NS 1.18 (1.02, 1.36) NS NS
Once/week or less 1.00 1.00
Gum consumption Several times/week 1.10 (1.02, 1.18) NS NS NS NS
Once/week or less 1.00
PVC in floors/walls Yes NS NS 1.50 (1.34, 1.68) 1.19 (1.08, 1.32) 1.22 (1.09, 1.35)
No 1.00 1.00 1.00