Estimating Pesticide Exposure from Dietary Intake and Organic Food Choices: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408197



Table 3. Demographic distributions (%) of participants who were selected for urinary metabolite analysis.
n Gender Race/ethnicity Age (years) Annual household income (in thousands of $US) Education
Female Male White Chinese Black Hispanic < 65 65–74 ≥ 75 < 30 30–75 > 75 ≤ High school Some college ≥ Bachelor’s degree
aComparisons among conventional consumers are across tertiles of estimated dietary exposure to OPs. The lowest tertile (tertile 1) includes individuals with estimated exposures of < 1.8 nmol/day; the middle tertile (tertile 2) includes individuals with estimated exposures ranging from 1.8 to 4.7 nmol/day; and the highest tertile (tertile 3) includes individuals with estimated exposures > 4.7 nmol/day. bEighty participants were randomly selected from each tertile of predicted exposure. cOne participant was excluded because of an implausibly high urinary DAP measurement (> 30,000 nmol DAP/g creatinine). dParticipants were selected to provide three groups of 80 participants with similar frequencies of each demographic characteristic shown.
Subgroups selected for urinary metabolite comparison, conventional consumersa
Random sampleb
Tertile 1 80 38 63 45 9 26 20 35 38 28 28 38 35 35 28 38
Tertile 2 79c 48 52 51 18 16 15 25 37 38 41 30 29 29 32 39
Tertile 3 80 59 41 56 8 20 16 28 30 43 26 43 31 21 28 51
Demographically matched sampled
Tertile 1 80 55 45 56 15 14 15 31 41 28 39 34 28 30 28 43
Tertile 2 80 56 44 55 16 14 15 31 41 28 39 34 28 30 28 43
Tertile 3 80 56 44 56 16 14 14 31 43 27 38 35 28 30 28 43
Subgroups selected for urinary metabolite comparison, by organic produce consumption habits
“Rarely or never” 80 60 40 53 9 26 13 31 36 33 21 46 33 24 25 51
“Sometimes” 80 66 34 43 9 21 28 40 35 25 26 48 26 25 33 43
“Often or always” 80 66 34 45 13 20 23 43 34 24 29 38 34 20 26 54