Bisphenol S and F: A Systematic Review and Comparison of the Hormonal Activity of Bisphenol A Substitutes

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408989



Table 2. In vivo BPS and BPF hormonal/physiological effect studies.
Chemical Study Model Exposure duration Age at exposure Route of exposure Doses LOELa Results
Abbreviations: EC50, half-maximal effective concentration; NA, not available; T, testosterone; T3, triiodothyronine; T4, thyroxin; TP, testosterone propionate; VTG, vitellogenin.
aThe dose at the end point of the lowest observed effect.
BPS Chen et al. 2002 Daphnia magna 2 or 4 days Juvenile Culture NA NA BPS was acutely toxic in Daphnia magna; EC50, 76 mg/L (24 hr); EC50 55 mg/L (48 hr). BPS showed estrogenic activity and did not show mutagenic activity in vitro.
BPS Yamasaki et al. 2004 Rat 3 days 20 days Injection 0, 20, 100, 500 mg/kg/day 20 mg/kg BPS exposure was estrogenic in rats via increases in uterine weight. BPS was also found to bind the estrogen receptor.
BPS Ji et al. 2013 Danio rerio 21 days 3–5 months Water 0, 0.5, 5, 50 μg/L 0.5 μg/L BPS exposure in zebrafish showed decreases in gonad weight with respect to body weight in males and females. No changes were observed in liver or brain weight with respect to body weight. E2 levels were increased in males and in females, T levels were decreased in males, and E2/T ratios were increased in males and females. Reproduction was impaired as evidenced by decreased egg production and hatchability, and by increased time to hatch and embryo malformation rates. Gene expression in the brain and gonads of several genes involved in the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis were altered in males and females.
BPS Naderi et al. 2014 Danio rerio 75 days 4–6 months Water 0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/L 1 μg/L BPS exposure in zebrafish showed decreased body length and weight in males, increased female to male sex ratio, decreased gonad weight, increased liver weight, decreased T3 and T4, decreased T in males, increased E2 in males and females, and increased VTG in males and females. BPS also caused disrupted reproduction, with decreased number of eggs produced, decreased hatching rate, increased time to hatch, and decreased sperm count.
BPF Chen et al. 2002 Daphnia magna 2 or 4 days Juvenile Culture NA NA EC50, 80 mg/L (24 hr); and EC50 56 mg/L (48 hr). BPF showed estrogenic activity and did not show mutagenic activity in vitro.
BPF Yamasaki et al. 2003 Rat 10 days 19 days Gavage 0, 50, 200, 1,000 mg/kg/day 100 mg/kg BPF co-administered with TP increased the weight of the Cowper’s gland. BPF alone and combined with TP decreased body weight.
BPF Yamasaki et al. 2004 Rat 3 days 20 days Injection 0, 100, 300, 1,000 mg/kg/day 100 mg/kg BPF induced uterine growth in immature rats. BPF was positive for relative binding affinity (E2).
BPF Higashihara et al. 2007 Rat 28 days 8 weeks Gavage 0, 20, 100, 500 mg/kg/day 20 mg/kg There were decreases in body weight and food consumption in males and females treated with BPF. Hematological and biochemical parameters were altered, including decreased cholesterol and glucose in males and females. BPF treatment decreased T3 and increased T4 levels. BPF increased testes, liver, thyroid, brain, and kidney weights.
BPF Stroheker et al. 2003 Rat 4 days 22 days Gavage 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day 100 mg/kg BPF was shown to increase uterine weight in rats.