Bisphenol S and F: A Systematic Review and Comparison of the Hormonal Activity of Bisphenol A Substitutes

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408989



Table 4. In vitro BPS and BPF hormonal activity compared with BPA.
Assay (receptor tested) Chemical potency vs.
positive control (control)
BPA potency vs.
positive control (control)
Chemical potency
compared with BPA potencya
Reference
Abbreviations: AhR, aryl hydrocarbon receptor; AR, androgen receptor; BPAR, BPA-targeted receptor; DHT, dihydrotestosterone; GFP, green fluorescent protein; luc, luciferase; mER, membrane estrogen receptor; NA, not available; NC, not able to calculate from the data presented (e.g., the positive control values were not reported); NR, not reported; TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.
aPotencies were calculated by dividing the BPS or BPF potency by the BPA potency in the same study.
BPS, estrogenic activity
MCF-7 GFP (ERα) 5.54 × 10–6 (E2) 8.86 × 10–6 (E2) 0.62 Kuruto-Niwa et al. 2005
E-screen (ERα) NA (E2) NA (E2) 0.67 Hashimoto and Nakamura 2000
Yeast 2-hybrid (ERα) 4.33 × 10–6 (E2) 2.76 × 10–5 (E2) 0.16 Hashimoto and Nakamura 2000
E-screen (ERα) NA (E2) NA (E2) 0.90 Hashimoto et al. 2001
Yeast 2-hybrid (ERα) 4.83 × 10–6 (E2) 2.40 × 10–5 (E2) 0.20 Hashimoto et al. 2001
Yeast 2-hybrid (ERα) NC (E2) NC (E2) 0.10 Chen et al. 2002
MCF-7 luc (ERα) 7.82 × 10–6 (E2) 1.37 × 10–5 (E2) 0.57 Kitamura et al. 2005
MELN (ERα) 9.76 × 10–6 (E2) 1.77 × 10–5 (E2) 0.55 Grignard et al. 2012
BG1Luc4E2 (ERα, ERβ) 2.52 × 10–7 (E2) 3.14 × 10–6 (E2) 0.08 Grignard et al. 2012
E-screen (ERα) 1.0 × 10–6 (E2) 3.75 × 10–5 (E2) 0.03 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
MELN (ERα) NR NR 0.04 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
HELN (ERα) NR NR 0.10 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
HELN (ERβ) NR NR 0.30 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
CV-1 luc (ERα) 5.73 × 10–5 (E2) 4.63× 10–4 (E2) 0.12 Teng et al. 2013
GH3/B6/F10 ERK (mER) 0.68 (E2) 1.56 (E2) 0.43 Viñas and Watson 2013a
GH3/B6/F10 ERK (mER) 1.36 (E2) 1.91 (E2) 0.71 Viñas and Watson 2013b
Yeast bioreporter (ERα) NR NR 0.01 Rajasärkkä et al. 2014
BG1Luc4E2 (ERα) NC (E2) NC (E2) 0.23 Rosenmai et al. 2014
BPS average estrogenic potency compared with BPA (mean ± SD) 0.32 ± 0.28
BPS, antiandrogenic activity
NIH353 + DHT (AR) 0.18 (Flutamide) 0.58 (Flutamide) 0.25 Kitamura et al. 2005
BPS, androgenic activity
MCF-7 AR1 (AR) 9.00 × 10–7 (R1881) 2.25 × 10–6 (R1881) 0.40 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
PALM (AR) NR NR 0.79 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
BPS, BPA activity
Yeast bioreporter (BPAR) 2.50 × 10–2 (BPA) 1.00 (BPA) 0.03 Rajasärkkä et al. 2014
BPF, estrogenic activity
E-screen (ERα) 1.0 × 10–3 (E2) 0.01 (E2) 0.10 Perez et al. 1998
E-screen (ERα) NA (E2) NA (E2) 0.89 Hashimoto and Nakamura 2000
Yeast 2-hybrid (ERα) 6.69 × 10–6 (E2) 2.76 × 10–5 (E2) 2.42 Hashimoto and Nakamura 2000
E-screen (ERα) NA (E2) NA (E2) 0.99 Hashimoto et al. 2001
Yeast 2-hybrid (ERα) 6.39 × 10–5 (E2) 2.40 × 10–5 (E2) 2.67 Hashimoto et al. 2001
Yeast 2-hybrid (ERα) NC (E2) NC (E2) 0.79 Chen et al. 2002
E-screen (ERα) 5.31 × 10–5 (E2) 1.10 × 10–5 (E2) 4.83 Stroheker et al. 2004
E-screen (ERα) 4.67 × 10–6 (E2) 7.78 × 10–6 (E2) 0.60 Satoh et al. 2004
MVLN luc (ERα) 5.86 × 10–6 (E2) 1.17 × 10–5 (E2) 0.50 Satoh et al. 2004
MCF-7 luc (ERα) 8.6 × 10–6 (E2) 1.37 × 10–5 (E2) 0.63 Kitamura et al. 2005
E-screen (ERα) 0.55 (E2) 0.86 (E2) 0.64 Pisapia et al. 2012
E-screen (ERα) 1.0 × 10–5 (E2) 3.75 × 10–5 (E2) 0.27 Rajasärkkä et al. 2014
MELN (ERα) NR NR 0.48 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
HELN (ERα) NR NR 0.29 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
HELN (ERβ) NR NR 0.36 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
Yeast bioreporter (ERα) NR NR 1 Rajasärkkä et al. 2014
BG1Luc4E2 (ERα) NC (E2) NC (E2) 0.81 Rosenmai et al. 2014
BPF average estrogenic potency compared with BPA (mean ± SD) 1.07 ± 1.20
BPF, antiandrogenic activity
MDA-MB453+DHT (AR) NR NR 0.78 Stroheker et al. 2004
AR-EcoScreen+DHT (AR) 0.03 (Cyproterone acetate) 0.06 (Cyproterone acetate) 0.52 Satoh et al. 2004
NIH353+DHT (AR) 0.21 (Flutamide) 0.58 (Flutamide) 0.36 Kitamura et al. 2005
PALM (AR) NR NR 0.13 Molina-Molina et al. 2013
CHO AR (AR) NC (R1881) NC (R1881) 0.94 Rosenmai et al. 2014
BPF average antiandrogenic potency compared with BPA (mean ± SD) 0.55 ± 0.32
BPF, antiestrogenic activity
E-screen+tamoxifin (ERα) NR NR 1.12 Stroheker et al. 2004
BPF, adiponectin secretion
3T3-L1 NR NR 0.56 Kidani et al. 2010
BPF, BPA activity
Yeast bioreporter (BPAR) 2.50 × 10–3 (BPA) 1.00 (BPA) 0.003 Rajasärkkä et al. 2014
BPF, AhR activity
H4IIE/CALUX (AhR) NC (TCDD) NC (TCDD) 1.2 Rosenmai et al. 2014