Pollinator Power: Nutrition Security Benefits of an Ecosystem Service

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A210



Estimated Percentages of Human Nutrients Derived from Pollinator-Independent versus Pollinator-Dependent Crops
Independent (%) Dependent (%)
Attributed to wind- or self-pollination Attributed to animal pollination
Adapted from Eilers et al. (2011)7
Macronutrients
Protein 83.43 13.57 3.00
Fat 26.02 66.98 7.00
Vitamins
Vitamin A 28.71 30.26 41.03
β-carotene 27.44 34.19 38.37
α-carotene 32.25 29.83 37.92
β-cryptoxanthin 0.77 56.99 42.24
Lycopene 0.00 56.67 43.33
Lutein, zeaxanthin 94.05 3.92 2.03
α-tocopherol 63.73 28.94 7.33
β-tocopherol 0.63 72.50 26.87
γ-tocopherol 32.92 52.66 14.42
δ-tocopherol 14.87 62.50 22.63
Vitamin K 71.55 19.28 9.17
Vitamin C 6.99 73.37 19.64
Vitamin B1 95.29 4.00 0.71
Vitamin B2 97.66 1.92 0.42
Vitamin B3 89.46 8.93 1.61
Vitamin B5 87.57 9.34 3.09
Vitamin B6 97.93 1.58 0.49
Vitamin B9 (folate), total 55.49 37.19 7.32
Minerals
Calcium 42.40 48.49 9.11
Iron 70.66 23.14 6.20
Magnesium 88.50 9.06 2.44
Phosphorus 89.06 8.72 2.22
Potassium 72.74 20.93 6.33
Sodium 87.18 8.63 4.19
Zinc 91.80 6.54 1.66
Copper 80.92 15.21 3.87
Manganese 93.87 4.94 1.19
Selenium 97.46 1.97 0.57
Fluoride 45.57 34.60 19.83