Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the Association between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP199



Table 1. Select characteristics of study participants at baseline by quartiles of first PM2.5 prediction.
Characteristic Total
mean ± SD or
n (%)
PM2.5 quartile (μg/m3)
< 10.8
mean ± SD or
n (%)
10.8–12.4
mean ± SD or
n (%)
12.5–14.8
mean ± SD or
n (%)
> 14.9
mean ± SD or
n (%)
Note: The first available PM2.5 is not the time-weighted average exposure used in models. For most participants, the first available PM2.5 prediction was the baseline prediction; otherwise, the next available non-missing PM2.5 prediction was used.
CVD, cardiovascular disease; PM2.5, fine particulate matter.
No. of participants 51,754 12,939 12,938 12,939 12,938
Age (years) 63.0 ± 7.3 63.2 ± 7.2 63.3 ± 7.2 62.9 ± 7.3 62.8 ± 7.3
Race/ethnicity
American Indian/Alaskan Native 193 (0.4) 82 (0.6) 48 (0.4) 34 (0.3) 29 (0.2)
Asian/Pacific Islander 722 (1.4) 160 (1.2) 202 (1.6) 214 (1.7) 146 (1.1)
Black 3,696 (7.1) 222 (1.7) 289 (2.2) 1,038 (8.0) 2,147 (16.6)
Hispanic 2,016 (3.9) 819 (6.3) 427 (3.3) 487 (3.8) 283 (2.2)
White not of Hispanic origin 44,671 (86.3) 11,539 (89.2) 11,863 (91.7) 11,042 (85.3) 10,227 (79.0)
Unknown 456 (0.9) 117 (0.9) 109 (0.8) 124 (1.0) 106 (0.8)
Smoking status
Never smoker 27,102 (52.4) 6,862 (53.0) 6,699 (51.8) 6,651 (51.4) 6,890 (53.3)
Past smoker 21,425 (41.4) 5,343 (41.3) 5,549 (42.9) 5,436 (42.0) 5,097 (39.4)
Current smoker 3,227 (6.2) 734 (5.7) 690 (5.3) 852 (6.6) 951 (7.4)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
Normal and underweight (< 25) 21,589 (41.7) 5,412 (41.8) 5,503 (42.5) 5,447 (42.1) 5,227 (40.4)
Overweight (25–29.9) 17,737 (34.3) 4,520 (34.9) 4,441 (34.3) 4,415 (34.1) 4,361 (33.7)
Obese (≥ 30) 12,428 (24.0) 3,007 (23.2) 2,994 (23.1) 3,077 (23.8) 3,350 (25.9)
Hypertension
No 36,553 (70.6) 9,271 (71.7) 9,240 (71.4) 9,209 (71.2) 8,833 (68.3)
Yes 15,201 (29.4) 3,668 (28.3) 3,698 (28.6) 3,730 (28.8) 4,105 (31.7)
Hypercholesterolemia
No 45,335 (87.6) 11,418 (88.2) 11,365 (87.8) 11,318 (87.5) 11,234 (86.8)
Yes 6,419 (12.4) 1,521 (11.8) 1,573 (12.2) 1,621 (12.5) 1,704 (13.2)
Diabetes
No 49,565 (95.8) 12,405 (95.9) 12,469 (96.4) 12,401 (95.8) 12,290 (95.0)
Yes 2,189 (4.2) 534 (4.1) 469 (3.6) 538 (4.2) 648 (5.0)