Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the Association between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP199



Table 2. Individual and neighborhood SES characteristics of study participants at baseline by quartiles of first PM2.5 prediction.
Characteristic Total PM2.5 quartile (μg/m3)
< 10.8
n (%)
10.8–12.4
n (%)
12.5–14.8
n (%)
> 14.9
n (%)
Note: The first available PM2.5 is not the time-weighted average exposure used in models. For most participants, the first available PM2.5 prediction was the baseline prediction; otherwise, the next available non-missing PM2.5 prediction was used.
CVD, cardiovascular disease; HS, high school; NSES, neighborhood socioeconomic status; PM2.5, fine particulate matter; SES, socioeconomic status.
No. of participants 51,754 12,939 12,938 12,939 12,938
Individual-level SES
Education
< HS 625 (1.2) 179 (1.4) 109 (0.8) 170 (1.3) 167 (1.3)
HS/trade school/GED 9,873 (19.1) 2,606 (20.1) 2,386 (18.4) 2,362 (18.3) 2,519 (19.5)
Some college or associate degree 4,854 (9.4) 1,275 (9.9) 1,241 (9.6) 1,139 (8.8) 1,199 (9.3)
Bachelor’s degree or higher 36,402 (70.3) 8,879 (68.6) 9,202 (71.1) 9,268 (71.6) 9,053 (70.0)
Family income
< $20,000 1,729 (3.3) 429 (3.3) 327 (2.5) 396 (3.1) 577 (4.5)
$20,000–$34,999 5,219 (10.1) 1,349 (10.4) 1,158 (9.0) 1,272 (9.8) 1,440 (11.1)
$35,000–$49,999 11,428 (22.1) 2,990 (23.1) 2,880 (22.3) 2,739 (21.2) 2,819 (21.8)
$50,000–$74,999 10,373 (20.0) 2,723 (21.0) 2,630 (20.3) 2,415 (18.7) 2,605 (20.1)
$75,000+ 23,005 (44.5) 5,448 (42.1) 5,943 (45.9) 6,117 (47.3) 5,497 (42.5)
Occupation at baseline
Managerial/professional 22,796 (44.0) 5,387 (41.6) 5,768 (44.6) 5,950 (46.0) 5,691 (44.0)
Technical/sales/administrative 15,038 (29.1) 3,764 (29.1) 3,836 (29.6) 3,669 (28.4) 3,769 (29.1)
Service/labor 8,583 (16.6) 2,304 (17.8) 2,054 (15.9) 2,041 (15.8) 2,184 (16.9)
Homemaker only 5,337 (10.3) 1,484 (11.5) 1,280 (9.9) 1,279 (9.9) 1,294 (10)
Neighborhood-level SES
Percent of adults 25 years and older with HS degree
< 82.3% 12,952 (25.0) 2,745 (21.2) 2,300 (17.8) 3,666 (28.3) 4,241 (32.8)
82.3–89.4% 12,927 (25.0) 3,470 (26.8) 3,028 (23.4) 3,363 (26.0) 3,066 (23.7)
89.5–94.3% 12,937 (25.0) 3,518 (27.2) 3,610 (27.9) 3,008 (23.2) 2,801 (21.6)
> 94.3% 12,938 (25.0) 3,206 (24.8) 4,000 (30.9) 2,902 (22.4) 2,830 (21.9)
Median family income
< $47,891 12,946 (25.0) 3,188 (24.6) 2,587 (20.0) 2,960 (22.9) 4,211 (32.5)
$47,891–62,526 12,933 (25.0) 3,616 (27.9) 2,956 (22.8) 3,158 (24.4) 3,203 (24.8)
$62,527–81,973 12,939 (25.0) 3,337 (25.8) 3,586 (27.7) 3,122 (24.1) 2,894 (22.4)
> $81,973 12,936 (25.0) 2,798 (21.6) 3,809 (29.4) 3,699 (28.6) 2,630 (20.3)
Percent of civilians 16 years and older with
professional/managerial/executive occupations
< 29.7% 12,941 (25.0) 3,251 (25.1) 2,791 (21.6) 3,079 (23.8) 3,820 (29.5)
29.7–41.3% 12,939 (25.0) 3,843 (29.7) 3,083 (23.8) 3,059 (23.6) 2,954 (22.8)
41.4–54.1% 12,939 (25.0) 3,313 (25.6) 3,442 (26.6) 3,179 (24.6) 3,005 (23.2)
> 54.1% 12,935 (25.0) 2,532 (19.6) 3,622 (28) 3,622 (28.0) 3,159 (24.4)
Median home value
< $103,500 12,939 (25.0) 2,755 (21.3) 2,764 (21.4) 3,224 (24.9) 4,196 (32.4)
$103,500–153,599 12,943 (25.0) 3,615 (27.9) 3,484 (26.9) 2,375 (18.4) 3,469 (26.8)
$153,600–233,999 12,934 (25.0) 3,511 (27.1) 2,857 (22.1) 3,594 (27.8) 2,972 (23.0)
> $233,999 12,938 (25.0) 3,058 (23.6) 3,833 (29.6) 3,746 (29) 2,301 (17.8)
Percent of families above poverty line
< 89.2% 12,940 (25.0) 2,729 (21.1) 2,573 (19.9) 3,146 (24.3) 4,492 (34.7)
89.2–94.0% 12,940 (25.0) 3,413 (26.4) 3,011 (23.3) 3,424 (26.5) 3,092 (23.9)
94.1–96.5% 12,943 (25.0) 3,711 (28.7) 3,361 (26) 3,060 (23.6) 2,811 (21.7)
> 96.5% 12,931 (25.0) 3,086 (23.9) 3,993 (30.9) 3,309 (25.6) 2,543 (19.7)
NSES score
< 72.6 12,939 (25.0) 2,791 (21.6) 2,492 (19.3) 3,211 (24.8) 4,445 (34.4)
72.6–77.6 12,938 (25.0) 3,750 (29.0) 2,937 (22.7) 3,352 (25.9) 2,899 (22.4)
77.7–81.6 12,939 (25.0) 3,487 (26.9) 3,445 (26.6) 3,020 (23.3) 2,987 (23.1)
> 81.6 12,938 (25.0) 2,911 (22.5) 4,064 (31.4) 3,356 (25.9) 2,607 (20.1)