Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and the Association between Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

Table 4. Estimated hazard ratios for time to first cardiovascular event associated with 5 μg/m3 higher exposure to PM2.5, with additional adjustment for each socioeconomic measure.
Characteristic HR (95% CI)
Note: All hazard ratios (HR) are adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Models listed are separate from one another and are not sequentially adjusted. The models adjust for SES measures indicated and no other SES measures listed above or below it. Models adjusting for combinations of SES measures (e.g., All Individual-level SES) are notated and explained in footnotes ad.
CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; NSES, neighborhood-level SES status; PM2.5, fine particulate matter; SES, socioeconomic status.
aAdditionally adjusted for the following individual-level SES indicators: education, total family income, and occupation.
bAdditionally adjusted for the following NSES indicators: percent of adults 25 years and older with high school degree, median family income, percent of civilian population 16 years and older with professional/managerial/executive occupations, median value of owner-occupied housing units, and percent of families above poverty line. This model does not include the NSES score.
cAdditionally adjusted for the NSES score and all individual-level SES indicators.
dAdditionally adjusted for all individual-level SES and NSES indicators except for NSES score.
PM2.5 without SES measures 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)
Individual-level SES
Education 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)
Income 1.12 (1.01, 1.24)
Occupation 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)
All Individual-level SESa 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)
Education 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)
Income 1.12 (1.00, 1.24)
Employment 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)
Home values 1.12 (1.00, 1.24)
Poverty 1.12 (1.01, 1.25)
NSES score 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)
All NSES (no NSES score)b 1.13 (1.01, 1.25)
Individual-level SES and NSES
All individual-level SES and NSES scorec 1.13 (1.02, 1.26)
All individual-level SES and All NSES (no NSES score)d 1.13 (1.02, 1.25)