Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S. Attributable Burden and Economic Costs

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510810



Table 3. Results by state for a 10-μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 above the reference level of 8.8 μg/m3 (base case estimates).
State Estimated attributable fraction (%) Estimated attributable preterm births (n) Estimated attributable lost lifetime economic productivity Estimated attributable medical care costs
Base case scenario refers to OR of 1.15 per 10-μg/m3 increment in PM2.5 and the reference level of 8.8 μg/m3.
Estimated attributable fraction: the fraction of PTBs attributable to outdoor air pollution.
Estimated attributable preterm births: estimated number of PTBs attributable to outdoor pollution.
Estimated attributable lost lifetime economic productivity: PTB-associated IQ loss resulting in lost economic productivity.
Estimated attributable medical care costs: costs for treatment of PTB-associated medical conditions in the first 5 years of life and costs after the first 5 years of life due to PTB-associated developmental disability.
Alabama 4.31 404 $110 million $19.4 million
Arizona 0.58 61 $16.8 million $2.95 million
Arkansas 3.18 156 $42.8 million $7.50 million
California 4.27 2,149 $589 million $103 million
Colorado 0.43 31 $8.50 million $1.49 million
Connecticut 2.87 112 $30.6 million $5.36 million
Delaware 4.70 68 $18.8 million $3.29 million
Florida 0.87 249 $68.4 million $12.0 million
Georgia 5.17 950 $260 million $45.7 million
Idaho 0.90 22 $5.92 million $1.04 million
Illinois 4.87 976 $268 million $46.9 million
Indiana 5.40 532 $146 million $25.6 million
Iowa 2.94 132 $36.1 million $6.32 million
Kansas 2.63 113 $31.1 million $5.44 million
Kentucky 4.62 354 $97.1 million $17.0 million
Louisiana 2.32 218 $59.8 million $10.5 million
Maine 0.85 11 $2.94 million $515,000
Maryland 4.67 438 $120 million $21.1 million
Massachusetts 2.44 190 $52.2 million $9.15 million
Michigan 3.81 533 $146 million $25.6 million
Minnesota 2.46 172 $47.1 million $8.26 million
Mississippi 2.65 187 $51.2 million $8.97 million
Missouri 3.48 323 $88.5 million $15.5 million
Montana 0.33 5 $1.31 million $229,000
Nebraska 1.64 48 $13.3 million $2.33 million
Nevada 0.57 28 $7.76 million $1.36 million
New Hampshire 1.61 19 $5.31 million $931,000
New Jersey 3.95 490 $134 million $23.6 million
New Mexico 0.12 4 $1.05 million $185,000
New York 3.67 1,032 $283 million $49.6 million
North Carolina 4.23 658 $181 million $31.6 million
North Dakota 0.44 4 $1.21 million $211,000
Ohio 5.44 924 $253 million $44.4 million
Oklahoma 2.47 182 $50.0 million $8.77 million
Oregon 1.63 74 $20.2 million $3.55 million
Pennsylvania 5.04 819 $224 million $39.4 million
Rhode Island 1.99 24 $6.59 million $1.16 million
South Carolina 3.88 321 $87.9 million $15.4 million
South Dakota 0.87 12 $3.21 million $563,000
Tennessee 4.17 425 $116 million $20.4 million
Texas 2.47 1,251 $342 million $60.1 million
Utah 1.70 97 $26.5 million $4.65 million
Vermont 1.12 6 $1.61 million $282,000
Virginia 3.71 444 $122 million $21.4 million
Washington 1.12 98 $26.9 million $4.71 million
West Virginia 4.62 114 $31.4 million $5.50 million
Wisconsin 3.85 286 $78.4 million $13.7 million
Wyoming 0.12 1 $264,000 $46,400
District of Columbia 4.73 59 $16.2 million $2.84 million