Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408322



Table 4. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia in association with baseline annual NOx concentration from Cox proportional hazards models.
NOxa (μg/m3) n (person-years) Cases HR (95% CI)
aThe annual non–back-extrapolated NOx baseline concentration at the residence of each participant was used as a proxy for exposure to air pollution. bModel 2: adjusted for education, physical activity, smoking, sex, BMI (body mass index), WHR (waist–hip ratio), alcohol, age, and ApoE4.
Alzheimer’s disease
Model 2b
4.8–9 381 (4,553) 30 1.0
> 9–17 420 (5,286) 39 1.15 (0.72, 1.86)
> 17–26 408 (4,700) 52 1.51 (0.96, 2.37)
> 26 383 (4,037) 52 1.38 (0.87, 2.19)
Per 10 μg/m3 1.05 (0.97, 1.15)
Vascular dementia
Model 2b
4.8–9 381 (4,553) 20 1.0
> 9–17 420 (5,286) 20 1.15 (0.62, 2.11)
> 17–26 408 (4,700) 30 1.46 (0.83, 2.61)
> 26 383 (4,037) 32 1.47 (0.83, 2.61)
Per 10 μg/m3 1.02 (0.92, 1.14)