Perceived Neighborhood Environmental Attributes Associated with Walking and Cycling for Transport among Adult Residents of 17 Cities in 12 Countries: The IPEN Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409466



Table 3. Estimated associations between perceived environmental attributes and walking and cycling for transport assessed in the previous week by IPAQ–LFa.
Environmental attributes ≥ 150 min walking for transport
(n = 13,745)
Total minutes walking for transport in those who reported any walking
(n = 4,939)
Any cycling for transport
(n = 13,745)
Total minutes cycling for transport in those who reported any cycling
(n = 851)
OR (95% CI) p‑Value exp(β) (95% CI) p‑Value OR (95% CI) p‑Value exp(β) (95% CI) p‑Value
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio.
aAll models adjusted for participant sociodemographics, site, and study design variables (neighborhood–area unit and socioeconomic status). bAssociation significant but not linear. Shape of relationship presented in Figure 1. cSignificant interaction by city, see Figure 2.
Residential density

NAb

1.001 (1.000, 1.001)  < 0.001

NAb

1.00 (0.999, 1.001) 0.805
Land use mix–access 1.33 (1.24, 1.42) < 0.001 1.08 (1.03, 1.14) 0.001 1.24 (1.13, 1.36) < 0.001c 1.05 (0.95, 1.15) 0.359
Street connectivity 1.15 (1.09, 1.21) < 0.001c 1.06 (1.02, 1.11) 0.003 1.14 (1.06, 1.22) 0.001 1.00 (0.92, 1.08) 0.945
Pedestrian infrastructure 1.12 (1.04, 1.21) 0.002 1.04 (0.98, 1.10) 0.193 1.22 (1.10, 1.36) < 0.001c 0.94 (0.84, 1.05) 0.267
Aesthetics 1.19 (1.11, 1.27) < 0.001 1.05 (1.00, 1.11) 0.032 1.15 (1.05, 1.26) 0.003 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 0.814
Traffic safety 0.92 (0.86, 0.97) 0.005 0.93 (0.89, 0.98) 0.002 1.14 (1.05, 1.24) 0.001 0.91 (0.83, 0.99) 0.033
Crime safety 0.99 (0.93, 1.05) 0.667 0.94 (0.90, 0.99) 0.010 1.17 (1.07, 1.28) 0.001 0.87 (0.80, 0.95) 0.002
Distance to local destinations 1.19 (1.12, 1.27) < 0.001c 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) 0.052 1.16 (1.06, 1.27) 0.001 1.07 (0.99, 1.17) 0.108