Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts

Table 1. Summary of study design characteristics by cohort.
Subject characteristics UC Berkeley Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health CHAMACOS Cohort Cincinnati Children’s Environmental Health Center HOME Study Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health Cohort Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center Cohort
Study location & source population Agricultural population in the Salinas Valley, California Urban and suburban population residing in Brown, Butler, Clermont, Hamilton, or Warren counties in Ohio Urban population residing in South Bronx or Northern Manhattan in New York City Urban population consisting of women receiving antenatal care at the Mount Sinai Hospital or two private obstetric practices on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York City
Years of enrollment 1999–2000 2003–2006 2000–2001 1998–2002
Eligibility criteria Receiving prenatal care at a designated clinic; < 20 weeks’ at enrollment; eligible for medical; 18 years or older; English or Spanish speaking Living in housing built before 1978; < 19 weeks gestation at enrollment African-American or Dominican women; 18–35 years of age; first prenatal care visit < 20 weeks gestation Primiparous; English or Spanish speaking; first prenatal care visit < 26 weeks gestation.
Exclusion criteria Twins; gestational or preexisting diabetes; hypertension; stillbirths; birth weight < 500 g Twins; HIV positive; receiving seizure, thyroid, or chemotherapy/radiation medications Twins; diabetes; hypertension; known HIV infection; smoking; Illicit drug use Twins; diabetes, hypertension or thyroid diseases; Illicit drug use or alcohol abuse during pregnancy; severe pregnancy complications including very premature birth (< 32 weeks or < 1,500 g at delivery); congenital malformations
Exposure measurement 2 urine samples at 13 and 26 weeks gestation averaged on a creatinine-corrected basis 2 urine samples at 16 and 26 weeks gestation averaged on a creatinine-corrected basis 1 urine sample at 32 weeks gestation 1 urine sample at 31 weeks gestation