Prenatal Organophosphorus Pesticide Exposure and Child Neurodevelopment at 24 Months: An Analysis of Four Birth Cohorts

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409474



Table 2. Distribution of demographic characteristics in individual cohorts.
Subject characteristics UC Berkeley CHAMACOS Cohort
(= 377)
Cincinnati Children’s HOME Study
(= 265)
Columbia University
(= 60)
Mount Sinai School of Medicine
(= 234)
n Percent n Percent n Percent n Percent
aFor Mount Sinai, primary language indicates the subject’s endorsement (= 139), or when missing, the language in which the questionnaires were administered over the course of the study (= 95). bColumbia required “living with a partner” to include only those who cohabited for ≥ 7 years. cMean ± SD.
Born before 2001 246 65.3 0 0 24 40 211 90.2
Maternal education
Less than high school 304 80.6 20 7.6 23 38.3 67 28.6
High school graduate/GED 36 9.6 26 9.8 20 33.3 48 20.5
Any college 37 9.8 219 82.6 17 28.3 119 50.8
Language spoken in homea
English 17 4.5 252 95.1 46 76.7 195 83.3
Any Spanish 356 94.4 0 0 10 16.7 38 16.2
Other 4 1.1 0 0 1 1.7 1 0.4
Maternal marital statusb
Not married/not living with partner 65 17.2 40 15.1 45 75.0 113 48.3
Married/living with partner 312 82.8 225 84.9 15 25.0 121 51.7
Parity
Nulliparous 116 30.8 115 43.4 30 50.0 234 100.0
Parous 261 69.2 150 56.6 30 50.0 0 0
Maternal country of origin
Other 332 88.1 15 5.7 24 40.0 41 17.5
USA 45 11.9 250 94.3 36 60.0 162 69.2
Maternal race/ethnicity
White 3 0.8 190 71.7 0 0 51 21.8
Black 0 0 59 22.3 36 30.0 57 24.4
Hispanic 369 97.9 5 1.9 24 40.0 123 52.6
Other 5 1.3 11 4.2 0 0 3 1.3
Maternal age at delivery (years)c 377 26.5 (5.2) 265 29.9 (5.3) 60 24.7 (5.2) 234 23.8 (6.5)
Any alcohol use during pregnancy 90 23.9 125 47.2 9 15.0 29 12.4
Any illicit drug use during pregnancy 6 1.6 12 4.5 0 0 15 6.4
Any smoking during pregnancy 18 4.8 26 9.8 0 0 39 16.7
Child sex
Male 185 49.1 122 46.04 18 30.0 126 53.9
Female 192 50.9 143 53.96 42 70.0 108 46.2
Breastfeeding at 3 months 273 72.4 167 63.02 37 61.7 101 43.2
24-month Psychomotor Development Index (PDI)c 377 97.6 ± 10.5 264 91.1 ± 14.0 60 94.5 ± 9.4 228 93.6 ± 11.6
24-month Mental Development Index (MDI)c 377 85.8 ± 11.7 265 89.6 ± 14.3 60 84.4 ± 11.9 234 87.9 ± 13.8