Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509967



Table 1. Description of the study population.
Characteristic All Munich Wesel
Percent or mean ± SD n/N Percent or mean ± SD n/N Percent or mean ± SD n/N
Covariates obtained at baseline: sex, study, parental education, all other covariates obtained at 15-year follow-up.
aBuilt from maternal and paternal education level, income, secondhand tobacco smoke in the home. bGeometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD).
Sex, male 51 427/837 52.2 242/464 49.6 185/373
GINIplus observation 44.6 373/837 36.6 170/464 54.4 203/373
GINIplus intervention 41.5 347/837 42.7 198/464 39.9 149/373
LISAplus 14.0 117/837 20.7 96/464 5.6 21/373
Maternal education (years)
≤ 9 9.4 79/837 8.0 37/464 11.3 42/373
10 40.7 341/837 32.1 149/464 51.5 192/373
> 10 49.5 414/837 59.5 276/464 37.0 138/373
Missing 0.4 3/837 0.4 2/464 0.3 1/373
Paternal education (years)
≤ 9 20.5 172/837 11.9 55/464 31.4 117/373
10 21.3 178/837 17.0 79/464 26.5 99/373
> 10 57.3 480/837 69.8 324/464 41.8 156/373
Missing 0.8 7/837 1.3 6/464 0.3 1/373
Equivalent net income (Euro/month) 1,727 ± 770 723 1,981 ± 799 404 1,405 ± 593 319
Smoking by the adolescent
Never 89 745/837 87.7 407/464 90.6 338/373
Sometimes 2.6 22/837 2.8 13/464 2.4 9/373
Daily 3.3 28/837 4.5 21/464 1.9 7/373
Missing 5.0 42/837 5.0 23/464 5.1 19/373
Secondhand smoke at home
Never 85.2 713/837 90.1 418/464 79.1 295/373
Sometimes 5.1 43/837 2.6 12/464 8.3 31/373
Every day 6.7 56/837 4.5 21/464 9.4 35/373
Missing 3 25/837 2.8 13/464 3.2 12/373
Socioeconomic scorea
Low (0–6 points) 31.4 263/837 23.7 110/464 41.0 153/373
Medium (7–8 points) 33.2 278/837 33.0 153/464 33.5 125/373
High (9–10 points) 35.4 296/837 43.3 201/464 25.5 95/373
Age (years) 15.2 ± 0.3 837 15.3 ± 0.3 464 15.2 ± 0.3 373
BMI (kg/m2) 20.6 ± 3.1 837 20.4 ± 3.0 464 21.0 ± 3.2 373
Pubertal scale
Pre-/early/mid-pubertal 17.0 142/837 18.1 84/464 15.5 58/373
Late or postpubertal 64.3 538/837 65.5 304/464 62.7 234/373
Missing 18.8 157/837 16.4 76/464 21.7 81/373
Physical activity
Low 28.2 236/837 33.0 153/464 22.3 83/373
Medium 28.8 241/837 27.2 126/464 30.8 115/373
High 23.9 200/837 19.0 88/464 30.0 112/373
Missing 19.1 160/837 20.9 97/464 16.9 63/373
Time spent outside in summer (hr/day)
0–2 24.3 203/837 32.1 149/464 14.5 54/373
2.5–4 44.2 370/837 44.2 205/464 44.2 165/373
4.5–6 22.6 189/837 16.4 76/464 30.3 113/373
> 6 5.5 46/837 4.3 20/464 7.0 26/373
Missing 3.5 29/837 3.0 14/464 4.0 15/373
HOMA-IR [GM (GSD)]b 1.2 (1.6) 837 1.2 (1.6) 464 1.2 (1.6) 373