Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509967



Table 4. Associations of air pollution exposure (annual average concentrations) and NDVI (based on data from 2003) with HOMA-IR. Results of generalized additive models fitted separately for each exposure.
Exposurea Basic modelb Further adjusted modelc Plus adjustment for NO2 Plus adjustment for NDVI (1,000 m)
% difference (95% CI) p-Value % difference (95% CI) p-Value % difference (95% CI) p-Value % difference (95% CI) p-Value
aEstimates per 2-SD increase in the exposure variables: 0.2 NDVI units NDVI (500 m) and (1,000 m) 0.2 NDVI units, 8.9 μg/m3 NO2, 6.7 μg/m3 PM10, 4.4 μg/m3 PM2.5, and 0.5 10–5/m PM2.5 absorbance. bAdjusted for: study area, cohort, sex, age, BMI. cAdjusted for: study area, cohort, sex, age, BMI, smoking by the adolescent, maternal and paternal education levels, secondhand smoke at home, physical activity, income, pubertal scale.
NDVI (500 m) –4.2 (–10.0, 2.0) 0.181 –5.5 (–11.3, 0.8) 0.084 –0.7 (–7.6, 6.8) 0.856 5.9 (–8.6, 22.8) 0.446
NDVI (1,000 m) –6.3 (–12.2, –0.1) 0.048 –7.4 (–13.3, –1.1) 0.023 –2.7 (–9.9, 5.1) 0.484
NO2 10.6 (3.8, 18.0) 0.002 11.4 (4.4, 18.9)* 0.001 9.8 (1.8, 18.5) 0.015
PM10 11.2 (0.3, 23.3) 0.044 11.4 (0.4, 23.7)* 0.042 –0.4 (–13.0, 13.9) 0.948 7.0 (–4.7, 20.2) 0.251
PM2.5 13.2 (–3.4, 32.7) 0.128 14.6 (–2.5, 34.6) 0.099 3.9 (–13.0, 24.2) 0.672 9.1 (–7.8, 29.2) 0.309
PM2.5 absorbance 3.9 (–4.8, 13.4) 0.393 4.7 (–4.2, 14.3) 0.313 –5.5 (–14.9, 5.0) 0.296 1.4 (–7.7, 11.2) 0.777