Critical Review of Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke Exposure

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409277



Table 1. Findings from epidemiological research studies (N = 43) ordered by health outcome.
Outcome Article Exposure assessment type Direction of association

aAsthma and COPD combined.

bUpper respiratory infections.

cLower respiratory infections.

dUpper respiratory infections and acute bronchitis combined.

eBronchitis alone.

fSignificantly elevated for indigenous population, but significantly lower risk for whole population.

↔ No association. ↑ Suggestive increase. ↑↑ Significant increase. ↓↓ Significant decrease.

Mortality
All Sastry 2002 Monitored PM ↑↑
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2011 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Faustini et al. 2015 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Linares et al. 2015 Monitored PM ↑↑
Shaposhnikov et al. 2014 Monitored PM ↑↑
Respiratory Johnston et al. 2011 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM
Faustini et al. 2015 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Linares et al. 2015 Monitored PM
Cardiovascular Nunes et al. 2013 Modeled PM and satellite data ↑↑
Faustini et al. 2015 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2011 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM
Linares et al. 2015 Monitored PM
Respiratory morbidity
Lung function in people without asthma or bronchial hyperreactivity Jacobson et al. 2012 Monitored PM ↓↓
Jacobson et al. 2014 Monitored PM ↓↓
Jalaludin et al. 2000 Monitored PM ↓↓
Physician visits Lee et al. 2009 Monitored PM ↑↑
Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PM ↑↑
Modeled PM
Binary satellite indicator of smoke
Moore et al. 2006 Temporal comparison ↑↑
Mott et al. 2002 Temporal comparison ↑↑
Lee et al. 2009 Monitored PM ↑↑
ED visits Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisons ↑↑
Tham et al. 2009 Monitored PM ↑↑
Thelen et al. 2013 Modeled PM ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Hospitalizations Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM ↑↑
Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PM ↑↑
Modeled PM
Binary satellite indicator of smoke
Johnston et al. 2007 Monitored PM
Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information ↑↑
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Chen et al. 2006 PM monitoring for categorical exposures ↑↑
Cançado et al. 2006 PM monitoring ↑↑
Mott et al. 2005 Temporal comparison ↑↑
Ignotti et al. 2010 % annual hours > 80 μg/m3 ↑↑
Tham et al. 2009 Monitored PM
Asthma
Lung function among people with asthma Jacobson et al. 2012 Monitored PM
Jalaludin et al. 2000 Monitored PM
Vora et al. 2011 Temporal comparison
Wiwatanadate and Liwsrisakun 2011 Monitored PM
Medications Elliott et al. 2013 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information ↑↑
Yao et al. 2016 Modeled PM ↑↑
Tse et al. 2015 Temporal and spatial comparisons ↑↑
Vora et al. 2011 Temporal comparison ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2006 Monitored PM ↑↑
Arbex et al. 2000 Measurement of PM
Physician visits Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PM ↑↑
Modeled PM ↑↑
Binary satellite indicator
Yao et al. 2014 2016 Monitored PM ↑↑
Modeled PM ↑↑
ED visits Johnston et al. 2002 Monitored PM ↑↑
Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisons ↑↑
Duclos et al. 1990 Temporal comparison ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Smith et al. 1996 Temporal comparison
Tse et al. 2015 Temporal and spatial comparisons
Hospitalizations Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM ↑↑
Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information ↑↑
Arbex et al. 2007 PM monitoring ↑↑
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2007 Monitored PM
Tse et al. 2015 Temporal and spatial comparisons
COPD
Physician visits Yao et al. 2016 Monitored PM ↑↑
Modeled PM ↑↑
ED visits Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisons ↑↑
Duclos et al. 1990 Temporal comparison ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Hospitalizations Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2007 Monitored PM ↑↑
Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information ↑↑
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days ↑↑
Mott et al. 2005 Temporal comparisona ↑↑
Respiratory infections
Physician visits Yao et al. 2016 Monitored PMb ↑↑
Modeled PMb
Monitored PMc ↑↑
Modeled PMc ↑↑
Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PMd
ED visits Duclos et al. 1990 Temporal comparisonb ↑↑
Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisonsb
Hospitalizations Johnston et al. 2007 Monitored PM
Pneumonia and bronchitis
ED visits Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisons ↑↑
Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Hospitalizations Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information ↑↑
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM ↑↑
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Duclos et al. 1990 Temporal comparisone ↑↑
Cardiovascular morbidity
Physician visits Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PM
Modeled PM
Binary satellite indicator
Moore et al. 2006 Temporal comparison
Lee et al. 2009 Monitored PM
Yao et al. 2016 Monitored PM ↓↓
Modeled PM
ED visits Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisons
Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Hospitalizations Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM
Hanigan et al. 2008 PM estimated from visibility data
Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PM
Modeled PM
Binary satellite indicator
Johnston et al. 2007 Monitored PM
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days
CHF
ED visits Rappold et al. 2011 Temporal and spatial comparisons ↑↑
Hospitalizations Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Cardiac arrest
Out-of-hospital Dennekamp et al. 2015 PM monitoring ↑↑
Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM ↑↑
ED visits Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Acute MI
ED visits Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM
Hospitalizations Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM ↑↑
IHD
Physician visits Lee et al. 2009 Monitored PM ↑↑
ED visits Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM
Hospitalizations Mott et al. 2005 Temporal comparison
Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM
Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information
Johnston et al. 2007 Monitored PM ↓↓ and ↑↑f
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Hypertension
Physician visits Henderson et al. 2011 Monitored PM
Hospitalizations Arbex et al. 2010 PM monitoring ↑↑
Cardiac dysrhythmias/arrhythmias
ED visits Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Hospitalizations Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information
Martin et al. 2013 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Cerebrovascular disease
ED visits Johnston et al. 2014 Smoky versus non-smoky days
Hospitalizations Delfino et al. 2009 PM monitoring, statistical modeling, and satellite information
Morgan et al. 2010 Monitored PM
Angina
Dispensations of fast-acting nitroglycerin Yao et al. 2016 Monitored PM ↑↑
ED visits Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM
Hospitalizations Haikerwal et al. 2015 Modeled PM
Birth outcomes
Birth weight Holstius et al. 2012 Temporal comparison ↓↓
Proportion of cohort surviving Jayachandran 2009 Satellite data ↓↓
Low birth weight Cândido da Silva et al. 2014 Monitored PM ↑↑
Mental health
Physician visits Moore et al. 2006 Temporal comparison
Hospitalizations Duclos et al. 1990 Temporal comparison