Exposure to Greenness and Mortality in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study of Women

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510363



Table 2. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for greenness and nonaccidentala all-cause mortality in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 108,630, with 8,604 deaths from 2000 to 2008).
Exposure metric 250-m buffer 1,250-m buffer
Cumulative average greenness Contemporaneous greenness Cumulative average greenness Contemporaneous greenness
Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)b Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)b Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)b Age-adjusted HR (95% CI) Fully adjusted HR (95% CI)b
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.
aExcludes International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) accidental codes E800–E999. bHazard ratios are adjusted for age and calendar year, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years smoked, parental occupation, registered nurse (RN) degree, marital status, husband’s highest education, census-tract median home value, and census-tract median income. cBased on linear test for trend using the ordinal rank for each quintile.
Quintile 1 Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Quintile 2 0.91 (0.85, 0.97) 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 0.96 (0.90, 1.02) 0.96 (0.90, 1.02) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.96 (0.90, 1.02) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01)
Quintile 3 0.88 (0.83, 0.94) 0.90 (0.84, 0.96) 0.93 (0.87, 0.99) 0.93 (0.87, 0.99) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 0.95 (0.89, 1.01) 0.94 (0.88, 1.01)
Quintile 4 0.91 (0.85, 0.97) 0.94 (0.88, 1.00) 0.87 (0.82, 0.93) 0.89 (0.83, 0.95) 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.94 (0.88, 1.01) 0.93 (0.87, 1.00) 0.94 (0.88, 1.01)
Quintile 5 0.83 (0.77, 0.88) 0.88 (0.82, 0.94) 0.89 (0.84, 0.96) 0.93 (0.87, 0.99) 0.86 (0.81, 0.92) 0.89 (0.83, 0.96) 0.86 (0.81, 0.92) 0.89 (0.83, 0.96)
p for trendc < 0.0001 0.002 < 0.0001 0.003 < 0.0001 0.004 < 0.0001 0.004
Continuous
(per 0.1 unit)
0.83 (0.78, 0.89) 0.88 (0.82, 0.94) 0.97 (0.94, 1.00) 0.99 (0.95, 1.02) 0.84 (0.79, 0.90) 0.89 (0.83, 0.95) 0.96 (0.93, 1.00) 0.98 (0.94, 1.01)