Exposure to Greenness and Mortality in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study of Women

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510363



Table 3. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cumulative average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (250-m buffer) and cause-specific mortality in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 108,630).
Outcome Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 p for trenda Continuous
(per 0.1 unit)
Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.
aBased on linear test for trend using the ordinal rank for each quintile. bHazard ratios are adjusted for age and calendar year, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years smoked, parental occupation, registered nurse (RN) degree, marital status, husband’s highest education, census-tract median home value, and census-tract median income. cIncludes any cause of death not included in the categories above, including accidental causes of death.
Infectious and parasitic diseases (304 cases)
Cases 72 66 67 48 51
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.99 (0.71, 1.40) 1.07 (0.76, 1.51) 0.82 (0.56, 1.19) 0.92 (0.63, 1.33) 0.411 0.78 (0.55, 1.10)
Cancer (3,363 cases)
Cases 778 695 654 650 586
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.93 (0.84, 1.03) 0.90 (0.81, 1.00) 0.93 (0.83, 1.03) 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) 0.024 0.85 (0.76, 0.94)
Diabetes (145 cases)
Cases 37 32 20 33 23
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.90 (0.56, 1.46) 0.59 (0.34, 1.02) 1.05 (0.65, 1.71) 0.81 (0.47, 1.38) 0.625 0.85 (0.52, 1.39)
Neurodegenerative diseases (827 cases)
Cases 188 173 173 146 147
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.97 (0.78, 1.19) 1.03 (0.83, 1.27) 0.93 (0.74, 1.16) 0.98 (0.78, 1.22) 0.767 0.93 (0.75, 1.15)
Coronary heart disease (1,420 cases)
Cases 320 299 264 308 229
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.99 (0.85, 1.16) 0.94 (0.79, 1.11) 1.19 (1.02, 1.40) 0.97 (0.81, 1.15) 0.474 1.02 (0.87, 1.20)
Stroke (606 cases)
Cases 155 114 140 109 88
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.76 (0.59, 0.97) 0.99 (0.79, 1.26) 0.86 (0.67, 1.11) 0.77 (0.59, 1.01) 0.195 0.79 (0.62, 1.01)
Respiratory (766 cases)
Cases 213 163 158 129 103
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.84 (0.69, 1.04) 0.86 (0.69, 1.06) 0.75 (0.60, 0.94) 0.66 (0.52, 0.84) < 0.001 0.73 (0.59, 0.90)
Kidney (139 cases)
Cases 39 34 27 21 18
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.93 (0.58, 1.48) 0.77 (0.47, 1.27) 0.64 (0.37, 1.11) 0.59 (0.33, 1.05) 0.029 0.63 (0.38, 1.04)
Other (1,219 cases)c
Cases 290 260 215 223 231
Adjusted HR (95% CI)b Reference 0.95 (0.80, 1.12) 0.82 (0.69, 0.99) 0.91 (0.76, 1.09) 1.01 (0.84, 1.20) 0.810 1.01 (0.85, 1.20)