Associations between Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Nasal and Sinus, Migraine Headache, and Fatigue Symptoms in Pennsylvania

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP281



Table 2. Characteristics of study population by self-reported outcome(s).
Characteristic Overall study population Individuals with no primary outcome Individuals with one or more primary outcomes
Reference groupa Individuals who were neither cases nor controlsb Current CRS only Migraine headache only Higher levels of fatigue only Current CRS and migraine Current CRS and higher levels of fatigue Migraine and higher levels of fatigue Current CRS, migraine headache, and higher levels of fatigue
Notes: CRS, chronic rhinosinusitis; sd, standard deviation; UNGD, unconventional natural gas development.
Percentages may not total 100 because of rounding.
aIndividuals in the reference group reported no past or current CRS; no headache-related nausea, photophobia, or disability; and lower levels (≤ 25th percentile) of fatigue.
bThese individuals did not meet criteria for any primary outcome and were excluded from the reference group because of past CRS, intermediate probability of migraine headache, moderate levels of fatigue, or a combination of any of these symptoms.
cUNGD activity was averaged over the 90 days before the survey.
Total number, n 7,785 1,380 2,889 738 580 666 268 347 420 497
Sex, n (%)
Male 2,909 (37.4) 656 (47.5) 1,242 (43.0) 335 (45.4) 113 (19.5) 233 (35.0) 50 (18.7) 126 (36.3) 63 (15.0) 91 (18.3)
Female 4,876 (62.6) 724 (52.5) 1,647 (57.0) 403 (54.6) 467 (80.5) 433 (65.0) 218 (81.3) 221 (63.7) 357 (85.0) 406 (81.7)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
White non-Hispanic 7,043 (90.5) 1,183 (85.7) 2,653 (91.8) 707 (95.8) 508 (87.6) 598 (89.8) 257 (95.9) 333 (96.0) 357 (85.0) 447 (89.9)
Other 742 (9.5) 197 (14.3) 236 (8.2) 31 (4.2) 72 (12.4) 68 (10.2) 11 (4.1) 14 (4.0) 63 (15.0) 50 (10.1)
Age in years, mean ± sd 55.3 ± 16.1 58.8 ± 17.0 57.6 ± 15.9 57.1 ± 14.9 46.1 ± 14.3 57.3 ± 15.1 48.5 ± 13.2 56.1 ± 14.7 46.5 ± 13.6 47.8 ± 13.1
Smoking status, n (%)
Never 4,268 (54.8) 805 (58.3) 1,615 (55.9) 404 (54.7) 340 (58.6) 334 (50.2) 141 (52.6) 178 (51.3) 220 (52.4) 231 (46.5)
Current 1,130 (14.5) 134 (9.7) 353 (12.2) 100 (13.6) 96 (16.6) 113 (17.0) 57 (21.3) 61 (17.6) 86 (20.5) 130 (26.2)
Former 2,387 (30.7) 441 (32.0) 921 (31.9) 234 (31.7) 144 (24.8) 219 (32.9) 70 (26.1) 108 (31.1) 114 (27.1) 136 (27.4)
History of receiving medical assistance, n (%)
Never 6,876 (88.3) 1,286 (93.2) 2,690 (93.1) 694 (94.0) 467 (80.5) 588 (88.3) 216 (80.6) 293 (84.4) 302 (71.9) 340 (68.4)
Ever 909 (11.7) 94 (6.8) 199 (6.9) 44 (6.0) 113 (19.5) 78 (11.7) 52 (19.4) 54 (15.6) 118 (28.1) 157 (31.6)
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean ± sd 30.2 ± 7.0 29.0 ± 6.3 29.9 ± 6.5 30.4 ± 7.0 29.7 ± 7.3 31.7 ± 7.9 29.8 ± 7.3 31.3 ± 7.4 31.7 ± 7.7 31.2 ± 8.1
Place type, n (%)
Township 4,949 (63.6) 907 (65.7) 1,900 (65.8) 476 (64.5) 332 (57.2) 417 (62.6) 170 (63.4) 213 (61.4) 242 (57.6) 292 (58.8)
Borough 2,135 (27.4) 371 (26.9) 762 (26.4) 188 (25.5) 183 (31.6) 192 (28.8) 72 (26.9) 101 (29.1) 122 (29.0) 144 (29.0)
Census tract in city 701 (9.0) 102 (7.4) 227 (7.9) 74 (10.0) 65 (11.2) 57 (8.6) 26 (9.7) 33 (9.5) 56 (13.3) 61 (12.3)
Community socioeconomic deprivation, mean ± sd 0.0 ± 3.6 –0.3 ± 3.6 –0.1 ± 3.6 –0.1 ± 3.5 0.3 ± 3.7 0.1 ± 3.6 0.2 ± 3.5 0.1 ± 3.7 0.6 ± 3.7 0.6 ± 3.8
UNGD activity metric, n (%)c
Quartile 1 [–0.61 to –0.47] 1,946 (25.0) 358 (25.9) 745 (25.8) 181 (24.5) 140 (24.1) 155 (23.3) 63 (23.5) 91 (26.2) 101 (24.0) 112 (22.5)
Quartile 2 [–0.47 to –0.39] 1,946 (25.0) 345 (25.0) 731 (25.3) 187 (25.3) 145 (25.0) 174 (26.1) 65 (24.3) 83 (23.9) 92 (21.9) 124 (24.9)
Quartile 3 [–0.39 to –0.16] 1,946 (25.0) 373 (27.0) 733 (25.4) 188 (25.5) 131 (22.6) 172 (25.8) 70 (26.1) 73 (21.0) 98 (23.3) 108 (21.7)
Quartile 4 [> –0.16] 1,947 (25.0) 304 (22.0) 680 (23.5) 182 (24.7) 164 (28.3) 165 (24.8) 70 (26.1) 100 (28.8) 129 (30.7) 153 (30.8)