Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP277



Table 1. Descriptive statisticsa of analytes (ng/g lipid weight) in the study population (= 1,144).
Compound LOD rangeb % above LOD Interquartile range (ng/g) Mean ± SD Median Geometric mean
(95% CI)
NHANES geometric mean (95% CI)c
Abbreviations: PCB, polychlorinated biphenyl; p,p´-,DDE, p,p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene; LOD, limit of detection.
aRange, means, and median calculated after replacing values < LOD with the LOD divided by the square root of 2.
bVariation in LODs for given analytes was observed as LODs were determined for each individual based on sample volume and concentration in the sample.
cEstimates for all females from the CDC (2009). Values from years of sampling 2003–2004 are shown (for comparison to EMA study dates). NHANES geometric means for the ≥ 20 years age group were similar to those shown for females.
dNot calculated for females, but male value = 5.28 (< LOD–6.14).
PCB28 0.5–49.7 84 6.1–41.7 30.65 ± 39.3 15.0 15.10 (14.0, 16.2) 4.99 (4.66, 5.35)
PCB99 0.4–3.0 63 0.92–2.1 1.76 ± 1.40 1.40 1.46 (1.41, 1.51) 4.35 (3.94, 4.81)
PCB118 0.4–3.0 86 1.5–3.6 2.98 ± 2.56 2.30 2.37 (2.28, 2.46) No information
PCB138/158 0.4–3.6 96 3.6–9.9 7.79 ± 6.92 5.85 5.81 (5.55, 6.08) 15.3 (14.0, 16.8)
PCB153 0.4–7.3 98 4.5–13.3 10.28 ± 9.19 7.70 7.64 (7.30, 7.99) 19.7 (18.4, 21.1)
PCB170 0.4–3.6 88 1.5–4.7 3.69 ± 3.30 2.80 2.74 (2.61, 2.87) 5.14 (4.82, 5.48)
PCB180 0.4–6.5 98 3.5–11.4 9.01 ± 8.26 6.70 6.46 (6.15, 6.77) 14.2 (13.4, 15.0)
PCB187 0.4–2.1 78 1.0–3.6 3.05 ± 3.52 1.90 1.99 (1.88, 2.10) 4.12 (3.84, 4.41)
PCB194 0.4–2.5 70 0.9–2.7 2.22 ± 2.08 1.50 1.63 (1.55, 1.70) 2.45 (2.28, 2.64)
PCB196/203 0.4–2.2 77 0.92–3.1 2.45 ± 2.29 1.70 1.77 (1.68, 1.85) 2.46 (2.27, 2.66)
PCB199 0.4–2.1 69 0.78–2.7 2.32 ± 2.76 1.40 1.52 (1.44, 1.60) 2.63 (2.49, 2.79)
Sum of above PCBs NA NA 34.9–94.7 73.2 ± 54.4 57.9 57.70 (55.3, 60.2)
p,p´-DDE 1.8–83.0 99.9 131.0–477.5 601.7 ± 1,256 218.0 270.0 (253, 288) 305.0 (273, 341)d
trans-Nonachlor 1.5–8.1 61 3.1–7.3 6.04 ± 5.5 4.70 4.89 (4.72, 5.07) 17.0 (15.4, 18.7)d