Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP277



Table 3. Prenatal PCB and OC pesticide levels (quartiles) in association with ASD risk (relative to GP controls).
Pesticide/quartile Value
(ng/g lipid)
n ASD cases Unadjusted OR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)a
Abbreviations: AOR, adjusted odds ratio; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; CI, confidence interval; p,p’-DDE, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene; GP, general population controls; OR, odds ratio; PCB, polychlorinated biphenyl; OC, organochlorine; Q1–Q4, quartiles 1–4.
aAdjusted for matching factors (child sex, month and year of birth), maternal age (continuous), maternal race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, Asian, black/Pacific Islander/or other, Hispanic, or missing), maternal weight at time of sample collection (quartiles), parity (multi- vs. primiparous), and maternal education (< high school, high school, college, graduate). Addition of other covariates listed in text, or adjustment for only maternal age and parity, yielded similar results.
PCBs
PCB28
Q1 < 5.3 110 1.0 (referent) 1.0
Q2 5.3–< 14.15 143 1.22 (0.84, 1.76) 1.17 (0.79, 1.73)
Q3 14.15–< 37.1 144 1.27 (0.88, 1.84) 1.20 (0.81, 1.77)
Q4 ≥ 37.1 148 1.29 (0.90, 1.87) 1.27 (0.87, 1.86)
PCB99
Q1 < 0.92 97 1.0 1.0
Q2 0.92–< 1.3 104 1.19 (0.79, 1.78) 1.12 (0.74, 1.70)
Q3 1.3–< 2.0 134 1.27 (0.87, 1.87) 1.08 (0.72, 1.62)
Q4 ≥ 2.0 173 1.64 (1.13, 2.39) 1.17 (0.75, 1.83)
PCB118
Q1 < 1.4 79 1.0 1.0
Q2 1.4–< 2.3 133 1.44 (0.97, 2.14) 1.29 (0.86, 1.95)
Q3 2.3–< 3.6 142 1.70 (1.14, 2.54) 1.38 (0.90, 2.11)
Q4 ≥ 3.6 152 1.71 (1.15, 2.54) 1.15 (0.72, 1.82)
PCB138/158
Q1 < 3.2 83 1.0 1.0
Q2 3.2–< 5.5 119 1.43 (0.97, 2.12) 1.39 (0.92, 2.10)
Q3 5.5–< 8.9 135 1.60 (1.08, 2.35) 1.34 (0.87, 2.07)
Q4 ≥ 8.9 197 2.33 (1.60, 3.39) 1.79 (1.10, 2.92)
PCB153
Q1 < 4.2 87 1.0 1.0
Q2 4.2–< 7.4 117 1.35 (0.91, 1.99) 1.32 (0.88, 1.99)
Q3 7.4–< 11.7 128 1.45 (0.98, 2.13) 1.24 (0.80, 1.93)
Q4 ≥ 11.7 204 2.33 (1.60, 3.37) 1.82 (1.10, 3.02)
PCB170
Q1 < 1.5 88 1.0 1.0
Q2 1.5–< 2.6 112 1.27 (0.85, 1.90) 1.15 (0.76, 1.76)
Q3 2.6–< 4.3 133 1.39 (0.94, 2.05) 1.17 (0.75, 1.83)
Q4 ≥ 4.3 183 1.97 (1.35, 2.89) 1.48 (0.88, 2.50)
PCB180
Q1 < 3.4 95 1.0 1.0
Q2 3.4–< 6.1 110 1.09 (0.74, 1.61) 1.00 (0.66, 1.50)
Q3 6.1–< 10.4 139 1.41 (0.96, 2.06) 1.17 (0.75, 1.81)
Q4 ≥ 10.4 195 1.97 (1.37, 2.85) 1.49 (0.89, 2.49)
PCB187
Q1 < 0.92 97 1.0 1.0
Q2 0.92–< 1.8 94 0.98 (0.65, 1.47) 0.89 (0.58, 1.36)
Q3 1.8–< 3.3 144 1.42 (0.97, 2.09) 1.22 (0.79, 1.87)
Q4 ≥ 3.3 174 1.74 (1.19, 2.53) 1.32 (0.79, 2.20)
PCB194
Q1 < 0.9 101 1.0 1.0
Q2 0.9–< 1.5 105 1.05 (0.71, 1.56) 0.99 (0.65, 1.49)
Q3 1.5–< 2.6 129 1.26 (0.86, 1.86) 1.06 (0.68, 1.63)
Q4 ≥ 2.6 170 1.65 (1.13, 2.40) 1.24 (0.76, 2.03)
PCB196/203
Q1 < 0.92 107 1.0 1.0
Q2 0.92–< 1.6 83 0.86 (0.57, 1.29) 0.79 (0.52, 1.21)
Q3 1.6–< 2.9 147 1.26 (0.86, 1.82) 1.05 (0.69, 1.61)
Q4 ≥ 2.9 172 1.56 (1.08, 2.26) 1.13 (0.68, 1.88)
PCB199
Q1 < 0.72 101 1.0 1.0
Q2 0.72–< 1.3 96 1.04 (0.69, 1.55) 0.93 (0.61, 1.41)
Q3 1.3–< 2.6 153 1.46 (1.00, 2.12) 1.17 (0.76, 1.80)
Q4 ≥ 2.6 159 1.59 (1.09, 2.32) 1.13 (0.68, 1.89)
Sum of above PCBs
Q1 < 33.4 94 1.0 1.0
Q2 33.4–< 55.3 119 1.27 (0.86, 1.87) 1.08 (0.72, 1.63)
Q3 55.3–< 86.3 115 1.22 (0.83, 1.81) 0.99 (0.64, 1.51)
Q4 ≥ 86.3 172 1.83 (1.25, 2.67) 1.36 (0.88, 2.11)
OC pesticides
p,p´-DDE
Q1 < 121.7 114 1.0 1.0
Q2 121.7–< 212.5 164 1.43 (0.99, 2.05) 1.35 (0.93, 1.96)
Q3 212.5–< 505.4 145 1.27 (0.88, 1.83) 1.16 (0.77, 1.74)
Q4 ≥ 505.4 122 1.06 (0.73, 1.54) 0.90 (0.57, 1.42)
trans-Nonachlor
Q1 < 3.1 114 1.0 1.0
Q2 3.1–< 4.7 120 1.01 (0.69, 1.48) 0.92 (0.62, 1.36)
Q3 4.7–< 7.1 127 1.06 (0.72, 1.55) 0.84 (0.56, 1.26)
Q4 ≥ 7.1 146 1.22 (0.83, 1.77) 0.84 (0.55, 1.28)