Climate and Health Co-Benefits in Low-Income Countries: A Case Study of Carbon Financed Water Filters in Kenya and a Call for Independent Monitoring

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP342



Table 1. Self-reported ownership and usage of LifeStraw® Family filters among three study populations (A, B, and C) at 6, 18, and 24–36 months post-filter distribution and assessment of filter use based on observations by study staff.
Indicator Population A
6 months
Population B
18 months
Population C
24–36 months
Note: Population A included households with pregnant women and caregivers of young children surveyed in November 2011, approximately 6 months after LifeStraw® filters were distributed. Population B included households with pregnant women surveyed in November 2012, approximately 18 months after LifeStraw® filters were distributed. Population C included households with pregnant women surveyed June 2013–May 2014, approximately 24–36 months after LifeStraw® filters were distributed.
aDirect observation by field staff.
All households
Total number 499 531 7,691
Received filter, n (%) 453 (90.8) 374 (70.4) 4,041 (52.5)
Stored water not currently available, n (%) 46 (10.8) 59 (11.1) 1,485 (19.3)
Filtered currently stored water, n (%) 119 (26.7) 95 (20.1) 252 (4.1)
Uses filter as water treatment method, n (%) 281 (56.3) 201 (37.9) 792 (10.3)
Households that received filter
Total number 453 374 4,041
Stored water not currently available, n (%) 45 (9.9) 30 (8.0) 658 (16.3)
Filtered currently stored water, n (%) 118 (28.9) 93 (27.0) 236 (7.0)
Uses filter as water treatment method, n (%) 278 (61.4) 195 (52.1) 752 (18.6)
Could produce filter for observation, n (%) 421 (92.9) 354 (96.7) 3,616 (93.6)
Promotion visit by program in past 6 months N/A 356 (95.2) 2,204 (54.6)
Missing 0 3
Households that produced filter
Total number 421 354 3,616
Filter not working 20 (4.8) 77 (21.8) 1,839 (51.0)
Don’t know 0 0 8
Filter hanging on walla 393 (93.4) 340 (96.9) 3,360 (93.8)
Observation not possible 0 3 33
Moisture in filter reservoira 136 (32.3) 89 (25.2) 438 (12.2)
Observation not possible 0 1 18
Filter has signs of nonuse (e.g., dust)a 299 (71.0) 228 (64.8) 2,963 (82.3)
Observation not possible 0 2 17