The Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Carriage among Industrial Hog Operation Workers, Community Residents, and Children Living in Their Households: North Carolina, USA

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP35



Table 1. Description of study population characteristics among industrial hog operation (IHO) and community referent (CR) participants, North Carolina, 2014 [n (%)].
Characteristic Adults Children
IHO CR IHO CR
aAny Hispanic includes participants whose self-reported race/ethnicity was Hispanic alone or Hispanic and one or more of the following: black, white, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, or other. Non-Hispanic includes individuals whose self-reported race/ethnicity was one or more of the following: black, white, Asian, Pacific Islander, American Indian, or other.
bDefined as owning a pet of any kind kept in- or outside the household.
cDefined as ever smoked cigarettes or having regularly used cigarillos, cigars, or pipes for ≥ 6 months.
dWithin 3 months of sample collection.
eDefined as having been to a hospital, doctor’s office, or other medical facility for any reason.
fDefined as playing any recreational sport during which human contact is common (e.g., soccer). In questionnaire, phrasing was “contact sport.”
gDefined as attending a workout/sports gym or facility.
hDefined as being cared for at an establishment or home along with five or more unrelated children.
Age (years) 198 202 198 202
0–2 32 (16) 75 (37)
3–5 116 (59) 100 (50)
6–< 7 50 (25) 27(13)
18–27 47 (24) 108 (54)
28–37 88 (44) 62 (31)
38–47 42 (21) 24 (12)
≥ 47 21 (11) 8 (4)
Sex 198 202 198 202
Male 107 (54) 41 (20) 123 (62) 90 (45)
Female 91 (46) 161 (80) 75 (38) 112 (54)
Race/ethnicitya 198 202 198 202
Any Hispanic 186 (94) 66 (33) 187 (94) 68 (34)
Non-Hispanic 12 (6) 136 (67) 11 (6) 134 (66)
Hispanic alone 185 (93) 66 (33) 186 (94) 65 (32)
Black alone, not Hispanic 12 (6) 125 (62) 11 (6) 122 (60)
White alone, not Hispanic 0 (0) 8 (4) 0 (0) 3 (1)
Multi-race/ethnicity 1 (< 1) 3 (2) 1 (< 1) 12 (6)
Black/Hispanic 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (1)
White/Hispanic 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 1 (< 1)
Black/white 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 6 (3)
American Indian/white 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Black/American Indian/white 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 3 (1)
Education 198 201
< High school 139 (70) 44 (22)
≥ High school 59 (30) 157 (78)
County of residence 198 202 198 202
Duplin 106 (54) 83 (41) 106 (54) 83 (41)
Sampson 73 (37) 24 (12) 73 (37) 24 (12)
Wayne 9 (5) 81 (40) 9 (5) 81 (40)
Bladen 5 (3) 11 (5) 5 (3) 11 (5)
Pender 4 (2) 1 (< 1) 4 (2) 1 (< 1)
Lenoir 0 (0) 2 (1) 0 (0) 2 (1)
Greene 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 0 (0)
Primary healthcare provider 198 202 197 202
Private doctor or clinic 147 (74) 150 (74) 165 (84) 177 (88)
Emergency room 13 (7) 15 (7) 14 (7) 6 (3)
Hospital 9 (5) 13 (6) 1 (< 1) 5 (3)
Free clinic 21 (11) 14 (7) 7 (4) 6 (3)
Urgent care 1 (< 1) 4 (2) 3 (2) 1 (< 1)
Company clinic or doctor 6 (3) 3 (1) 3 (2) 3 (1)
Other 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 4 (2)
Do not use healthcare 1 (< 1) 2 (1) 4 (2) 0 (0)
Health insurance 198 202 198 202
None 67 (34) 42 (21) 11 (6) 7 (3)
Company/employer 79 (40) 19 (9) 39 (20) 12 (6)
Private 2 (1) 8 (4) 0 (0) 5 (2)
Public 49 (25) 133 (66) 147 (74) 178 (88)
Other 1 (< 1) 0 (0) 1 (< 1) 0 (0)
Total number of household members (tertiles) 198 196 198 196
2–3 69 (35) 106 (54) 69 (35) 106 (54)
4 65 (33) 39 (20) 65 (33) 39 (20)
≥ 5 64 (32) 51 (26) 64 (32) 51 (26)
Household petb 198 201 198 201
No 133 (67) 162 (81) 133 (67) 162 (81)
Yes 65 (33) 39 (19) 65 (33) 39 (19)
Pet location 64 39 64 39
Indoor only 4 (6) 10 (26) 4 (6) 10 (26)
Outdoor only 49 (76) 21 (54) 49 (76) 21 (54)
Indoor and outdoor 11 (17) 8 (21) 11 (17) 8 (21)
Smokerc 198 202
No 167 (84) 130 (64)
Yes 31 (16) 72 (36)
Recent antibiotic used 198 202 198 202
No 196 (99) 185 (92) 196 (99) 192 (95)
Yes 2 (1) 17 (8) 2 (1) 10 (5)
Recent healthcare contactd,e 198 202 198 202
No 188 (95) 112 (55) 173 (87) 115 (57)
Yes 10 (5) 90 (45) 25 (13) 87 (42)
Contact sportsd,f 198 202 198 202
No 186 (94) 200 (99) 196 (99) 201 (> 99)
Yes 12 (6) 2 (1) 2 (1) 1 (< 1)
Gym attendanced,g 198 202
No 193 (97) 176 (87)
Yes 5 (3) 26 (13)
Child care attendanced,h 198 202
No 193 (97) 179 (89)
Yes 5 (3) 23 (11)