Prenatal Exposure to Glycol Ethers and Neurocognitive Abilities in 6-Year-Old Children: The PELAGIE Cohort Study

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP39



Table 5. Associations between concentrations of glycol ether metabolite in mothers’ prenatal urine samples and the WISC-IV scores of their 6-year-old children.
Metabolite (mg/L) n WISC-Verbal Comprehension Index n WISC-Working Memory Index
βcrude (95% CI) βadjusted (95% CI) βcrude (95% CI) βadjusted (95% CI)
Abbreviations: BAA, 2-butoxyacetic acid; EAA, ethoxyacetic acid; EEAA, ethoxyethoxyacetic acid; MAA, methoxyacetic acid; NA: Not applicable, significant departure from linearity based on restricted cubic spline model; PhAA, phenoxyacetic acid. All adjusted models were adjusted for education, WAIS score, HOME score, creatinine concentration, and investigator who administered the neurocognitive test. Additional adjustments were made for breastfeeding (MAA), alcohol consumption (EEAA), parity (BAA), and fish consumption (BAA). WISC-IV scores are based on a scale with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 (minimum–maximum, 40–160).
MAA
≤ 0.043 68 Reference Reference 67 Reference Reference
> 0.043–0.081 67 0.59 (–4.74, 5.93) 1.75 (–3.15, 6.65) 65 –0.04 (–5.03, 4.94) 0.40 (–4.35, 5.15)
> 0.081 69 4.06 (–1.24, 9.36) 2.87 (–2.00, 7.74) 68 0.55 (–4.38, 5.48) –0.33 (–5.03, 4.37)
Continuous (log) 204 1.39 (–0.51, 3.30) 0.95 (–0.83, 2.73) 200 1.16 (–0.64, 2.96) 1.00 (–0.74, 2.74)
EAA
≤ 0.011 68 Reference Reference 67 Reference Reference
> 0.011–0.021 67 2.73 (–2.63, 8.09) 3.35 (–1.66, 8.36) 65 0.34 (–4.65, 5.32) 0.09 (–4.70, 4.88)
> 0.021 69 1.42 (–3.90, 6.74) –1.40 (–6.58, 3.78) 68 –0.69 (–5.62, 4.24) –3.16 (–8.13, 1.80)
Continuous (log) 204 0.29 (–1.96, 2.55) –0.29 (–2.48, 1.89) 200 0.33 (–1.78, 2.44) –0.25 (–2.35, 1.86)
EEAA
≤ 0.016 68 Reference Reference 67 Reference Reference
> 0.016–0.050 66 4.97 (–0.36, 10.31) 4.51 (–0.39, 9.40) 65 1.32 (–3.66, 6.30) 0.41 (–4.31, 5.13)
> 0.050 70 0.44 (–4.82, 5.70) –0.22 (–5.30, 4.86) 68 1.31 (–3.62, 6.24) 0.16 (–4.78, 5.09)
Continuous (log) 204 0.53 (–0.62, 1.69) 0.31 (–0.79, 1.42) 200 0.47 (–0.63, 1.57) 0.21 (–0.87, 1.29)
BAA
≤ 0.028 67 Reference Reference 66 Reference Reference
> 0.028–0.058 68 –1.14 (–6.50, 4.23) –0.58 (–5.55, 4.40) 67 –1.09 (–6.06, 3.87) –1.57 (–6.39, 3.26)
> 0.058 69 –1.91 (–7.26, 3.43) –2.25 (–7.22, 2.72) 67 –0.27 (–5.24, 4.69) –1.49 (–6.32, 3.34)
Continuous (log) 204 –0.22 (–2.59, 2.15) –0.61 (–2.84, 1.61) 200 1.04 (–1.15, 3.22) 0.45 (–1.71, 2.60)
PhAA
≤ 0.224 68 Reference Reference 68 Reference Reference
> 0.224–0.781 67 –5.16 (–10.44, 0.12) –4.72 (–9.61, 0.16) 65 –0.17 (–5.14, 4.80) 0.41 (–4.34, 5.16)
> 0.781 69 –6.61 (–11.89, –1.37) –6.53 (–11.44, –1.62) 67 0.35 (–4.48, 5.28) 0.93 (–3.85, 5.70)
Continuous (log) 204 NA NA 200 0.24 (–0.85, 1.32) 0.08 (–0.97, 1.14)