Comparing the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Estimated Using Ground-Based versus Remote Sensing Exposure Estimates

http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP575



Table 4. Results of the Cox proportional hazard modeling with adjustment for individual or individual plus year 1990 ecologic covariates.
Air pollution Diseases of the circulatory system
n = 100,102
Ischemic heart disease
n = 45,624
Fully-adjusted HR (95% CI) AIC (1,587,000s) Fully adjusted HR (95% CI) + 1990 ecological confounders AIC (1,587,000s) Fully-adjusted HR (95% CI) AIC (726,000s) Fully adjusted HR (95% CI) + 1990 ecological confounders AIC (726,000s)
Notes: ACS CPSII, American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II; AIC, Akaike Information Criterion; CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.
Hazard ratios expressed over a 10 μg/m3 increment. There are 43 variables in the model including PM2.5 for individual only and 55 in fully adjusted.
PM2.5 HBMCMAQ 02-04 1.09 (1.07, 1.12) 434 1.09 (1.06, 1.12) 094 1.15 (1.11, 1.19) 688 1.11 (1.07, 1.16) 315
PM2.5 BME 02-04 1.13 (1.10, 1.15) 388 1.12 (1.09, 1.15) 065 1.19 (1.15, 1.23) 650 1.15 (1.10, 1.19) 296
PM2.5 BMELUR 02-04 1.15 (1.13, 1.18) 340 1.14 (1.11, 1.17) 033 1.20 (1.16, 1.24) 636 1.15 (1.11, 1.19) 290
PM2.5 BMELUR CT 02-04 1.13 (1.11, 1.16) 364 1.12 (1.09, 1.15) 051 1.19 (1.15, 1.23) 643 1.14 (1.10, 1.18) 292
PM2.5 BMELURRS 02-04 1.12 (1.09, 1.14) 388 1.11 (1.08, 1.14) 066 1.18 (1.14, 1.22) 652 1.13 (1.09, 1.17) 297
PM2.5 BMELURRS CT 022‑04 1.11 (1.09, 1.13) 396 1.11 (1.08, 1.13) 068 1.17 (1.13, 1.20) 660 1.12 (1.08, 1.16) 301
PM2.5 RS GWR CT 02-04 1.09 (1.07, 1.11) 411 1.08 (1.06, 1.11) 088 1.10 (1.06, 1.13) 711 1.08 (1.05, 1.12) 321
PM2.5 RS no GWR CT 02‑04 1.04 (1.03, 1.06) 462 1.02 (1.00, 1.04) 131 1.09 (1.06, 1.12) 707 1.06 (1.02, 1.09) 331
PM2.5 BMELUR 01-06 1.16 (1.13, 1.19) 336 1.14 (1.11, 1.17) 036 1.20 (1.16, 1.25) 639 1.15 (1.11, 1.19) 293
PM2.5 RS 01-06 1.05 (1.04, 1.07) 447 1.05 (1.03, 1.07) 115 1.12 (1.10, 1.15) 658 1.10 (1.07, 1.14) 298
Ensemble estimate 1.16 (1.13, 1.19) NA 1.14 (1.11, 1.17) NA 1.20 (1.16, 1.24) NA 1.15 (1.11, 1.19) NA