Writing and Preparing Your Manuscript for Submission
All manuscripts should be as concise as possible without sacrificing information necessary for reproducibility and clarity. Failure to comply with author instructions may result in a delay of the manuscript handling and review process.
Include the following items in the order shown, beginning on the first page of the manuscript:
- Manuscript title of ≤ 300 characters
- The title should state the subject of the paper and include relevant information to help potential readers determine whether the paper might be related to their interests or needs. Relevant information includes the exposure(s) and outcome(s) assessed, and whether the study was observational or experimental. For epidemiological studies, consider key characteristics of the study population (e.g., gender, age, location, cohort) and design. For experimental studies, indicate the experimental model, including species or in vitro system(s). The title should not be a declarative statement of the study results or conclusions.
- Names of the authors, with the first name provided first
- Affiliations of all authors (department, institution, city, state/province, and country)
- Complete contact information for the corresponding author (name, email address, and address)
- Acknowledgments section
- Include sources of funding for the research (if applicable), such as granting agencies, foundations, private support, etc.
- Authors may also include (as relevant) specific author contributions, acknowledgment of other contributors, information about data sharing, or names of large cohort groups
- Declaration of competing financial interests (CFI)
- This section is required regardless of whether authors have actual or potential competing interests, as defined on EHP’s CFI Declaration form. The CFI declaration in the manuscript must be consistent with information on the CFI Declaration form.
- If no authors have CFI, please use the following language to report this: “The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.”
- If one or more authors have CFI, describe the CFI in detail and, as appropriate, affirm that “All other authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.”
Include a structured abstract of ≤ 300 words for all Research Articles, Reviews, and Commentaries on a new page after the title page. See specific article types for abstract headings. The abstract should not include references or any information that does not appear in the text of the manuscript. We recommend that authors indicate study names or sources of data that are integral to the study. Summarize major findings in a balanced manner, rather than focusing only on findings that support the study hypothesis.
Brief Communications require an unstructured summary of ≤ 200 words.
Sections should appear in the following order:
- Methods (if required for the article type)
- Results (if required for the article type)
- Figure captions
Concise subheadings (≤ 8 words each) may be used to designate major topics within each of these sections. Subheadings should be used to organize information, but should not summarize or interpret results or conclusions. Do not exceed three levels of headings, including the main headers.
Select the relevant article type below to access specific information:
Research articles report original research results that are relevant to the relationship between the environment and human health, and that make a substantial advance in the field. For research articles involving animal subjects, EHP expects adherence to the ARRIVE (Animals in Research: Reporting in Vivo Experiments) guidelines for reporting animal research (Kilkenny et al. 2010; Tilson and Schroeder 2013). For observational research studies, EHP strongly recommends that authors consult an appropriate version of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines.
Suggested length is < 7,000 words, excluding the text in the abstract, references, tables, figure legends, acknowledgments, and Supplemental Material.
Abstract: Structure using the following headings: Background, Objectives, Methods, Results, Discussion.
Introduction: Provide background information to support the motivation for the study, and state the study objectives or hypotheses. Specifically,
- Provide context for the study, including information on the exposures and outcomes and why they are relevant to environmental health.
- Briefly review the literature to summarize current knowledge.
- Indicate whether the research was observational or experimental, and note key characteristics of study populations or experimental models.
- Present a balanced review of the literature, and acknowledge inconsistencies, rather than noting only findings that support the present study hypothesis.
- Identify knowledge gaps addressed by the current study.
- Provide a clear description of the study questions/hypotheses, aims, or objectives, and, if appropriate, an overview of the approach used to address them.
Do not summarize study results or conclusions in the Introduction.
Methods: EHP requires complete methodological transparency—describe methods in enough detail to ensure that the study could be repeated by other researchers in the same field (at least in theory), and can be understood and interpreted by most EHP readers. Specifically,
- Thoroughly describe the methods used to generate all results reported in the manuscript, including (as appropriate):
- Study design and population or experimental model
- Methods to measure or estimate exposures
- Outcome definitions and ascertainment or measurement
- Assay methods and conditions
- Justification of exposure and/or doses
- Number of biological and/or technical replicates
- Statistical analyses
- Accession numbers (or “rs” numbers for SNPs)
- Sensitivity and secondary analyses
- All criteria used to interpret results
- Key assumptions and limitations of the methods
- Model numbers of all equipment used
- Company name, catalog number, and lot numbers for all reagents used
- Names/version numbers for data analysis software packages or macros
- If referring to previous publications for methods details, include a brief description of the approach, key assumptions and limitations, and any deviations from previously described methods.
- Do not report results unless relevant to explain the rationale for the approaches listed.
For research that involves animals: Include all relevant details listed in the latest version of the ARRIVE guidelines, and indicate that the protocol was approved by an institutional animal care and use committee. Provide a rationale for the doses used, and indicate how they compare with environmental exposures experienced by humans.
For research that involves human subjects: Include all relevant details listed in an appropriate version of the STROBE or other guidelines. Provide information about institutional review board approval, and either describe informed consent protocols or explain why informed consent was not required.
Results: Report all results on which study conclusions or inferences are based (in whole or in part), including null findings and results of secondary or sensitivity analyses. Report results in full in the main text or in supplemental tables or figures as appropriate (see Supplemental Material for a list of materials that may be presented in this section). You may organize the Results section using subheadings that describe the nature of the results, but do not use declarative statements indicating your conclusions about the findings.
- Provide a clear and concise description of all findings without extrapolating beyond the results being reported.
- Do not describe methods for the first time in the Results section.
- Results of all analyses and experiments that are described in the manuscript, including sensitivity analyses and secondary analyses, must be reported in full, either in the main text or in Supplemental Material. Do not limit results only to statistically significant results or selected findings that support the study hypothesis.
- If p-values are used to interpret findings, report actual p-values for all results rather than indicating ranges of p-values or statistical significance only.
- Clearly indicate numbers of observations for each analysis or experiment, along with information about missing data.
- Include an appropriate measure of precision or variation (e.g., standard errors, 95% confidence intervals) with all summary estimates and estimates of effect.
- Although EHP encourages the use of supplemental tables or figures for secondary findings (see Supplemental Material for details), present primary results in the main text. This includes results that are mentioned repeatedly, are related to the primary study aims, or are mentioned in the Abstract or manuscript conclusions.
- Provide numeric data used to generate figures as supplemental tables whenever possible.
- Begin with a brief overview of the main study findings.
- Provide a review of the relevant literature and other information needed to put the study findings into context.
- Provide a complete and balanced view of previous research, including findings that are inconsistent with the hypothesis or findings of the present study.
- Describe sources in sufficient detail to ensure that readers can assess the quality and extent of the contribution, including:
- study type or design
- sample size
- population or experimental model
- specific exposures and outcomes
- Provide a frank discussion of study limitations.
- End with a summary of the key findings and their implications for the study question/hypothesis, future research, and policy, as appropriate.
- Do not describe methods or results for the first time in the Discussion section.
Commentaries provide new perspectives on important environmental health topics or problems. Commentaries that stem from discussions at workshops and other forums should acknowledge the meeting content and its purpose but should not be presented as a narrative summary of the meeting. Commentaries are not used to discuss individual articles published in EHP or elsewhere.
Suggested length is < 5,000 words, excluding the text in the abstract, references, tables, figure legends, acknowledgments, and Supplemental Material.
Abstract: Structure using the following headings: Background, Objectives, Methods (if relevant), and Discussion.
Introduction: Define and state the importance of the problem at hand. Cite relevant literature pertinent to the issue based on an unbiased search of the literature or on expert elicitation. Clearly state the specific aim(s) of the Commentary.
Methods: If methods are appropriate, include them here.
Discussion: Provide the authors’ perspective(s) on the problem, and discuss data or knowledge gaps, research needs, and recommendations relevant to the problem at hand. Statements and conclusions should be clearly attributed to the authors or supported with appropriate references.
Reviews present, contrast, and (when appropriate) combine data across studies to address a specific question or issue related to environmental health. Reviews must utilize systematic review methodologies to identify the corpus of relevant scientific literature, including clearly defined search strategies and study eligibility criteria as needed to capture the current state of knowledge in an unbiased and comprehensive manner. A variety of review formats may be considered by EHP, such as state-of-the-science reviews, scoping reviews, evidence maps, full systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. EHP does not publish narrative reviews or reviews based on meetings (meeting summaries or reports). Regardless of review type, authors should integrate and critically analyze information from previous research, identify information gaps so as to make recommendations for future research, and draw conclusions based on the stated purpose of the review.
Note: For full systematic reviews, authors are expected to conform to appropriate guidelines, such as PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses).
Suggested length is < 10,000 words, excluding the text in the abstract, references, tables, figure legends, acknowledgments, and Supplemental Material.
Abstract: Structure using the following headings: Background, Objectives, Methods, Results, Discussion.
Introduction: Define the question or problem, and provide enough background to allow the reader to understand the importance of the review. Provide a rationale based on previous research and relevant reviews. Provide specific aims of the review with reference to study questions, including relevant population(s) and exposure(s).
Methods: For all types of reviews, including state-of-the-science reviews, provide detailed descriptions and rationales for processes used to identify the corpus of relevant scientific literature, including but not limited to:
- Search strategy: Describe the full electronic search strategy, databases searched, and date of final search, such that the search could be fully replicated by other researchers.
- Study eligibility criteria: Provide a detailed description of and rationale for all study inclusion/exclusion criteria, including population(s), exposure(s), evidence stream(s) (e.g., human observational, experimental animal, in vitro, etc.), date and language limitations, etc.
For systematic reviews, including scoping reviews and systematic evidence maps, include the following according to PRISMA guidelines:
- Study selection: Describe the formal screening process used to select studies, such as number of screeners, conflict resolution, and any computer-assisted techniques (e.g., machine learning, automated text recognition).
- Data extraction: Describe what information was extracted and how data were collected from records.
- Study quality: Describe how the quality of individual studies, lines of evidence, or outcomes (e.g., internal validity, risk of bias) was assessed. For broad scoping reviews, study quality of individual studies is not required; however, at the very least authors should discuss at a high level the strengths/limitations of the types of studies as well as the knowledge gaps.
- Meta-analyses (if applicable): Provide all details of statistical analyses used to synthesize data across studies, including summary measures, consistency measures, and subgroup analyses.
Results: Provide the results of study screening, summaries of extracted data, and any synthesis measures across studies using tables and figures that allow readers to draw their own conclusions rather than solely being led by the authors’ narrative.
- Study selection: Provide numbers of studies screened and included in the review, along with reasons for exclusion at each stage. Flow diagrams (see PRISMA) are generally most effective.
- Summary of findings: Present extracted data and study quality along with citations for each study in summary tables.
- For broad scoping reviews, online interactive visualizations may be used to complement tables and figure within the main body of the manuscript.
- For meta-analyses, include confidence intervals and consistency measures along with results of any additional analyses.
Discussion: Summarize the main findings for primary exposures or outcomes, and put them into context with previous related research and reviews. Discuss any limitations of the body of evidence at the exposure and/or outcome level as well as any limitations of the review process. Conclude with a brief overview of the main objectives and results of the review, including summaries of the state of the knowledge and potential knowledge gaps.
Brief Communications provide new information of broad interest to the environmental health community. Brief Communications may take a variety of forms, such as descriptions of new and accessible investigative tools, introductions to new programs or emerging issues, or consensus statements from organized groups. The information should be generalizable to a variety of situations or locations, and should be useful to a variety of stakeholders. Brief Communications may include case studies by way of example; however, EHP does not publish isolated case studies as stand-alone articles. Furthermore, Brief Communications should not contain non–peer-reviewed data. Although Brief Communications are not classified as peer-reviewed articles, the editors may solicit comments from subject matter experts.
Suggested length is < 3,000 words, excluding the text in the summary, references, tables, figure legends, and acknowledgments. Supplemental Material is not allowed for Brief Communications. Limited use of tables and figures is allowed, typically not to exceed a total of three items.
Summary: Describe the purpose of the article in ≤ 200 words.
Introduction: Include background information, with relevant references, and state the objective of the Brief Communication.
Discussion: Describe the tool, program, or consensus statement, and explain its usefulness, importance, and value. For example, what contribution does it make to environmental health research or understanding; how can a new tool be used by others or in other situations; how will a consensus statement lead to actions, intervention, or new research?
Begin the list of references on a new page after the Discussion section of the manuscript. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references. To avoid extensive queries, please provide complete, accurate information for references, including:
- Author/editor name(s) or authoring agency
- Year of publication
- Full title of article or chapter
- Title of journal or book/proceedings
- For books and meeting reports, city/state/country of publication and name of publisher
- Volume and inclusive page numbers
- PubMed article identifier (PMID) number
- DOI number
- For websites and online documents, the URL and date accessed
- For software, the version number
- For data sets or data files, the electronic location or identifier
If you are uncertain whether to include a piece of information, err on the side of inclusion.
Ordering Your Reference List
List references alphabetically by the last name of the first author (or subsequent authors if papers have the same first author) followed by the year of publication (earliest to latest). If the first author shares a last name with another first author (Smith JM vs. Smith RB), alphabetize by initials. Distinguish multiple publications in the same year by the same first author using a, b, c, etc. (e.g., 2017a, 2017b, 2017c, etc.).
Alphabetize government agencies that are listed as the author by their acronyms followed by the full name of the organization in parentheses, e.g., WHO (World Health Organization). For multiple citations by the same agency, spell out the acronym once at first mention.
Place all in-text citations in name/year format immediately after the information cited, with no comma separating the name and the year:
- Single author:
- The study by Wing (2002)…
- A study on this topic (Wing 2002)…
- Two authors:
- The study by Wing and Wolf (2000)…
- A study on this topic (Wing and Wolf 2000)…
- Three or more authors:
- The study by Wing et al. (2008)…
- A study on this topic (Wing et al. 2008)…
Preparing Tables and Figures
Creating main text tables
- Begin each table on a new page after the list of references.
- Create tables using the Table feature in Microsoft Word. Do not submit tables as images.
- Number tables using Arabic numerals (e.g., Table 1, 2, 3, etc.) according to the order in which they are first mentioned in the main text.
- Do not use the following formats to number tables: Table 1A, 1B, etc.; or Table 1.1, 1.2, etc.
- Ensure that all tables are cited in the main text.
- Give each table a title that describes what is shown but does not summarize results or present conclusions.
- Adhere to the following guidelines to ensure table readability:
- Do not use more than one layer of row headings.
- Do not use more than two layers of column headings.
- Provide a column heading for every column (including the first column), with no additional column heads placed in the body of the table.
- Do not use shading or colors within the table.
- Do not merge cells across rows or across columns. All columns within the body of a table must comprise the same number of rows, and all rows must comprise the same number of columns.
- Do not use italics or boldface for emphasis or formatting within the table.
- Use the “±” symbol for arithmetic mean and standard deviation or standard error (e.g., “mean ± SE”) and parentheses for the standard error when presented with the geometric mean [e.g., “GM (SE)”].
- Present number and percent as “n (%)” in one column.
- Present confidence intervals in parentheses in the same column as the point estimate, with the upper and lower bounds separated by a comma [e.g., (0.1, 2.3)].
- List abbreviations, definitions, and general information about the table in a note immediately under the table (e.g., “Note: All estimates are from logistic regression models adjusted for…”; see table example below).
- Define relevant populations or samples, models, calculations, and statistical analyses such that the table can be interpreted easily by the reader without having to read the entire manuscript.
- If p-values are reported, clearly indicate the comparison to which the p-value applies (e.g., “compared with untreated controls”).
- List footnotes after the general note (if one is included) to explain or expand upon specific elements of the table.
- Begin each footnote on a new line.
- Indicate footnotes using lowercase italicized superscript letters, starting over with “a” for each subsequent table. Lettered footnotes within the table should be ordered from top left to top right, next row left to right, and so on.
- Do not use footnotes in the table title.
- Identify footnotes indicating statistical significance in the following order: *, †, ‡, § (asterisk, dagger, double dagger, section). However, EHP strongly prefers that authors report numeric p-values for all results, regardless of significance, rather than using symbols to indicate categorical p-values for selected results only.
The table below is for illustrative purposes only; do not submit tables as images. All tables should be created using the Table feature in Microsoft Word. The table below is reproduced from Casey JA, Morello-Frosch R, Mennitt DJ, Fristrup K, Ogburn EL, James P. 2017. Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, residential segregation, and spatial variation in noise exposure in the contiguous United States. Environ Health Perspect 125(7):077017, 10.1289/EHP898.
EHP does not redraw or format author images prior to publication. It is the authors’ responsibility to ensure appropriate figure numbering, quality, and sizing to avoid publication delays.
Creating main text figures
- Number figures according to the order in which they are first mentioned in the main text.
- Ensure that all figures are cited in the main text.
- Adhere to the following guidelines to ensure figure readability:
- Do not use color as the only means of conveying information; use contrast, patterns, or symbols instead of color (or in addition to color) whenever possible.
- Whenever possible, ensure that all images can still be interpreted when printed in black and white.
- Ensure correct spelling for all figure text.
- Clearly label all axes, giving both the measure and the unit of measurement where applicable.
- Ensure that all letters, numbers, and lines are clearly legible and easy to differentiate.
- When possible, ensure that terms are styled the same in figures as they are in the main text (e.g., subscript the “10” in “PM10” in both the text and the figure labels/legends).
- Ensure that terms and styles (including symbols and colors) are consistent across figures. For example, if Figure 1 is a scatterplot and Figure 2 is a bar graph, you might use a black circle to represent the control in the scatterplot and a black bar to represent controls in the bar graph.
- For photomicrographs, include a scale bar in each image, and specify the length in the typed figure caption (e.g., “bar = 10 µm”).
- You may adjust an image for brightness and contrast if you apply the change to the entire image. Do not remove background data of gels and blots. The final image must accurately represent the original data.
- Figures may be no larger than 7.0 inches in width. Ensure that reducing a figure to this size does not compromise readability, quality, or interpretability.
- Ensure that text within each image is of similar size, with point sizes between 6 and 8 points when reduced to final publication size.
- These guidelines also apply to figures with multiple panels. EHP does not have the ability to rearrange panels within a figure to meet the size requirement.
Saving and submitting figures
- Save and submit each figure in one of the following formats:
- PDF (fonts must be embedded)
- PS/EPS (embed fonts, or use system fonts only: Helvetica, Courier, Arial, Times)
- TIFF (no layers, LZW compression, Interleaved Pixel Order, IBM Byte Order, minimum 300 dpi, 600 dpi preferred, minimum 8-bit color depth)
- JPG (may be submitted if higher-quality image formats are not available; minimum 300 dpi, 600 dpi preferred, minimum 8-bit color depth)
- Submit only one version of each figure, but format can vary by figure.
- Submit figures with multiple panels as a single file.
- Include the figure number in the filename of each figure (e.g., “Figure 1.pdf”).
- Do not embed figures in the main text file, and do not duplicate the image caption in the figure image.
- Provide figure captions on a new page of the main text after tables.
- Include a title for the entire figure and descriptors for each panel [e.g., “Figure 1. Incidence of hepatocellular adenomas (A) and carcinomas (B) in mice exposed to DEHP”].
- Figure titles should describe the figure and not interpret its meaning or present conclusions.
- Define error bars and any abbreviations not defined in the figure itself.
- Define relevant populations or samples, models, calculations, observations per data point, and statistical analyses such that the table can be interpreted easily by the reader without having to read the entire manuscript.
- Define all elements of the figure, including symbols, whiskers, and lines or bars that are not already defined within the image itself.
- If statistical significance or p-values are reported, clearly indicate the comparison(s) to which they apply (e.g., “compared with controls from the corresponding age group”).
- Provide a credit line for any images reused with permission from the copyright holder. Present credit lines as the copyright holder requires; do not reword.
- Provide footnotes directly after the abbreviations beginning on the next line. Identify footnotes indicating statistical significance in the following order: *, †, ‡, § (asterisk, dagger, double dagger, section). However, EHP strongly prefers that authors report numeric p-values for all results, regardless of significance, rather than using symbols to indicate categorical p-values for selected results only.
EHP editors reserve the right to request that complex figures (e.g., figures with multiple panels showing information in a variety of formats, or that include panels related to different experiments) be divided into separate figures for publication. Direct questions concerning figures to email@example.com.
Reserve Supplemental Material for background information that is needed to support transparency but not required to understand and interpret the findings. The main text must stand alone in the absence of Supplemental Material. Supplemental Material will be peer reviewed along with the manuscript and thus must meet the same rigorous standards. There is no limit on the number of tables or figures in Supplemental Material.
What Goes in Supplemental Material?
In general, Supplemental Material should be limited to tables, figures, questionnaires, and background details that are not required to understand the methods or interpret results. Appropriate information for Supplemental Material may include (but is not limited to):
- Lists of reagents and sources, SNPs, and primers
- Background data, such as lists of consortium members or detailed information on studies in systematic reviews
- Tables and figures with results of sensitivity analyses
- Tables of numeric summary data and variances used to generate figures and graphs
- Directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) used to select model covariates
- Software code
- Raw data
The Following Should NOT Be Included in Supplemental Material
- Text descriptions of study methods
- Tables or figures cited multiple times in the main manuscript, or that include results mentioned in the Abstract or Discussion sections
- Information or material that is not directly relevant to your study or manuscript
If you are uncertain about whether something should be included in the main text or in Supplemental Material, include it in the main text. If your manuscript is sent back to you for revisions, your editor will let you know if anything should be moved to Supplemental Material. EHP editors may decline to send new submissions out for peer review if methods are provided in Supplemental Material.
Supplemental Material (tables and figures) is usually submitted as a single Word file separate from the main text. However, content may be provided as separate files in alternative formats as appropriate:
- Excel files (ideal for large tables; see section below on preparing a Supplemental Excel file)
- Data analysis code and data files in appropriate formats for their intended use
- Video files (MP4 and AVI are preferred)
- Audio files (WAV or MP3 format)
Preparing Supplemental Material
Supplemental Material files are linked to their associated articles through a common DOI number. Supplemental Material will be published as is without additional formatting or copyediting. Therefore, please confirm that your files are complete, accurate, and appropriately formatted for publication.
- Begin the primary Supplemental Material file with a title page that says “Supplemental Material” followed by the title of the paper and the author list.
- Provide text (if necessary) first, followed by all supplemental tables, then all supplemental figures; do not alternate between figures and tables.
- Use descriptive headings to indicate information other than tables and figures, and refer to the headings when citing the material in the main text. For example:
- see Supplemental Material, qRT-PCR primers
- see Supplemental Material, Reagents
- When generating supplemental tables and figures:
- Follow the formatting guidelines provided for main text tables and figures.
- Provide the title and caption for each figure below the figure on the same manuscript page as the figure itself.
- Provide the title for each table above the table and the notes below the table.
- Number supplemental tables and figures separately according to the order in which they are first mentioned in the main text. Use an “S” prefix with each table or figure number (e.g., Table S1, Figure S1). Do not include “Supplemental Material” as part of the table or figure name.
- Use landscape (i.e., horizontal) layout if necessary.
- Conclude the main Supplemental Material file with a list of references for any sources cited in the Supplemental Material, even if they are also cited in the main paper.
Preparing a Supplemental Excel File
Use Excel format only when it is not practical to include a table in the main Supplemental Material file (e.g., if it is too wide to fit on a single manuscript page or is more than 2 pages long).
- Provide multiple Excel tables in a single Excel workbook as separate worksheets.
- Label the tab for each worksheet with the indicator “Excel” and the table number (e.g., Excel Table S1). Excel tables should be numbered separately from other supplemental tables.
- In the first row of the table, include the table number and title.
- Include a separate worksheet with explanatory information that applies to multiple tables as appropriate.
- Name the Excel file “Supplemental Excel File.”
Enable continuous line numbering on all manuscripts (line numbers should NOT restart at 1 on each page). Manuscripts received without continuous line numbers will be returned to the author for revision before peer review.
EHP covers all disciplines engaged in the broad field of environmental health science. Therefore, write in a clear and simple manner; when possible, use active rather than passive voice to avoid ambiguity. Avoid unnecessary jargon, and define terms that may not be universally recognized among all environmental health scientists.
EHP follows Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. Use American spelling throughout the manuscript except for direct quotations from primary sources or proper names.
Symbols and Equations
- Use MathType or Word’s Equation Builder tool to generate mathematical expressions and equations, as well as any equation variables used within the text itself.
- Place simple expressions and equations in line. Present in-line equations on one line, and do not stack fractions. Example: Average air concentration (Cair) was derived using Cair = Mpas/(RPUF−PAS × t).
- Place complex expressions and equations, including those with stacked fractions, on a separate line, and include a number in brackets (on the same line, to the right) if needed. Example:
- Define all nonstandard elements, including superscripts and subscripts.
- Use bold text to represent vectors.
- Ensure that all symbols and equations are correctly displayed when viewed on a monitor and in print.
Do not use footnotes in the main manuscript text. Place all textual information within the manuscript, and indicate all references as in-text citations and, if applicable, as entries in the list of references.